Cue Dependencey

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Tulving and Pearlstone (1966)

  • If we had access to te categories words came from we would recall more 
  • Participants said they were read lists of words that fell into categories 
  • In condition one particiants recalled the words without cues (Free Recall)
  • In condition two they were given the category titles as cues (Cued Recall)
  • In cued recall conditions participants recalled more words 
  • Category titles are a form of semantic cue
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Godden and Baddely (1975)

  • Thier aim was to see whether words are remembered best when recalled in the same environment they were learnt 
  • Eighteen divers  were given a list of words to learn - either on the beach of 15 feet under the sea 
  • In one condition the divers recalled in the same location as where they were learned 
  • In the other condition they recalled in the other location 
  • Where the words were didn't affect accuracy 
  • Lists learned and recalled in the same environment were higher than switch locations 
  • 40% more words were forgotten if recall took place in a different environment 
  • Context clues enhanced recall
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