e.g. sodium chloride
Very high; the electrostatic forces between ions are very strong, and require alot of energy to break.
Only conducts when molten or dissolved, because then the charged ions are free to move.
Weak- very brittle. When hit, oppositley charged ions line up and repel eachother.
Very soluble- charged ions are attracted to the dipoles of water.
low- only weak Van der Waal forces holding molecules together.
None- there are no charged particles to carry a current.
Weak- only VDW forces to break.
Little, as there is no charged or polar molecules.
Simple Molecular exception- WATER
higher than expected due to hydrogen bonds, which need to be broken.
Good- molecules are polar so can carry charge.
Ice is very strong, as the hydrogen bonds become still and rigid.
universal solvents itself, but polar, so dissolves well in other solvents.
Giant covalent- diamond
extremely high, as covalent bonds throughout which need huge amounts of energy to break.
no charged particles so not a conductor. the carbon atoms are saturated iwth 4 other carbon atoms
extremely strong- covalent bonds
None- not polar, and too big. The covalent bonds are way stronger than any water dipole.
Giant covalent- Graphite
Very high- covalent bonds need to be broken.
Good conductor- the carbon atoms are only bonded to three others, so there are delocalised electrons to carry current.
Brittle- individual layers are strong, but only weak forces between layers so they can easily slip.
None- not polar.
Varies, but generally high. The more electrons an atom commits to the sea of delocalised electrons, the higher the melting point will be. Aluminium contributes 3 electrons, whereas Lithium only commits one.
Very good conductors- the delocalised electrons move randomly until a charge is applied, and they all move towards the cathode, carrying the charge in a current.
Varies, but generally strong- they absorb energy in their malleability because the protons can move around in the sea of electrons.
none- not polar.