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different coastal enviroments

these include-

-different rock types and the processes of eriosion that are prone to these areas.-cliffs-arches-stacks-sheltered inlets- natural harbours. 

different physical features encourage different types of development-

-dramatic scenery- jarassic coastline ( world heritage site)

-natural harbour- inporting and exporting easy. 

-beaches in areas with equable( warm) climates.

-high bio diversity

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increased develpment causes coastal population gro

-there are physical factors including accsessibility, fertile soil, equable climate, scenery and high biodiversity which can lead to an increase in the fishing and tourism indistry. 

-incresase in ^ means an increase in pop as people move for incrreased job opps. 

-flat land makes it easy to develope and build onto- encouraging people to the area. 

dubai- less the 20% of the people who live in dubai are native- due to population growth.

-florida 80% of people live on the coast.

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felidwork and research factors that affect populat

RESEARCH-

-looking at historical documents and maps to see how land use has changed.

-to find out population numbers you can look at census data.

-local newspapers for any new development projects 

-holiday brochers to see what attracts people to the area.

FIELDWORK-

-land use survey to look at visible evidence of economic development.

-survey to find peoples reasons for moving to the area.

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coastal development disort land use model

-Coastal development creates patterns of land use zoning- there are a number of common charactoristcs of a UK seaside location such as....

-SHAPE- limits growth with the main road on the sea front.

-ACCOMIDATION- hotels with sea views cheaper accomidation is away from the sea front were as expencive has se views. 

-OPEN SPACES- including parks or pleasure gardens they were set aside when land prices were lower.

-ENTERTAINMENT- piers and archades.

coastal development has lead to planning control- rate increases and so does development.

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coastal development can cause conflict with coasta

different people have different ideas on how developmet should take place on the coast- stake holders. these is often conflic between the stake holders for example-

-TOURISM- it will bring job ops and increased spending however it can increase noise , light and air pollution. It can have and enviromental impact with the disruption of land for new roads.

-OVERFISHING-can bring jobs and money but over fishing can lead to not enough fish being left.

-AQUA CULTURE- people wanting cheap fish has lead to fish farms this leads to conflict between producers and enviromentalists. high levels of fish can lead to a decrease in oxygen levels in the water and kill other fish as a result.

-INDUSTRIALISATION- as ports have expanded because of growth in indistry , coastal ecosystems are under threat. such as salt marches which want to be developed but many are SSSI.

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tools to assess conflic and evaluate development-

-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT- this helps to identify the enviromental consoquences of a development project. 

-COST BENIFIT ANALYSIS- this process allows the cost and benifit of any development to be examined to see if it should go ahead. 

-VALUE ANALYSIS- this identifies different view points of stakeholders in the project. 

fieldwork- enviromental value survey- recreastinal value- biodiversity survey.

research- planning aplications - envirometnal value- assess the impact of fishinhg.

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coast systems-

IMPUTS-river sediment, cliff sediment and transported sediment. 

PROCESSES- wave action, tidal movement, erosion, transportation, depostiation. 

OUTPUTS- sediment washed out to sea or deposited along the coast line. 

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waves are responsible for erosion and depositation

- waves are created by wind-wind blowing over the sea give the water a cercular motion. 

-this effects the fetch- which is the maximum distance the of the sea the wind has blown over to create the wave.

-as the wave is about the break friction with the sea bed slows it down.

TIDES AFFECTS WHERE A WAVE BREAKS.

At high tide they break higher up the shore 

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sub arial weathering along the coastline.

-sub arial weathering describes processes that are not linked to the sea- freeze thore weathering and salt weathering - this weakens the cliffs.

-through flow- ( flow of water through the cliffs) caused by heavey rain can make the cliffs unstable and increase the likelyhood of mass movement. 

-mass movement- is the movement of matireal down hill due to gravity, this includes landslides-mass movement- slumping. 

five main ways for waves to erode the coastline-

-abrasion- bits of rock transported by waves grind against rock- smooth surface.

-hydrolic action-air in rocks is compressed and this breaks off rock pieces.

-quarrying-the energy of the waves against the cliffs destroys bits of rock.

-corrosion-soluble rock get disolved in the sea- limestone and chalk

-attrition-bits of rock in the water smash against each other and get smaller.

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rate of erotion

this depends on a number of factors-

THE WIDTH OF THE BEACH-the distance between high and low tide marks, beaches slow down waves and reduce there erosion power.

THE BREAKING POINT OF THE WAVES- a wave that breaks directily at a cliff transfers the most energy to the cliff face.

THE ASPECT- if the coastline faces wind and wave direction erosion will be faster.

THE FETCH OF THE WAVES-longer fetch means more erosion. 

ROCK TYPE-soft rock more erosion. 

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natural physical causes of coastal flooding

LOW PRESSURE IN THE ATMASPHERIC SYSTEM

STRON ONSHORE WINDS

TIDLE CURRENTS- STORM SURGES

HIGH RAINFALL

COMBINATION OF ALL FACTORS ABOVE

TUSNAMIS

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HUMAN ACTIVITY THAT CAUSES FLOODING-

MANAGMENT OF RIVER SYSTEM- some reduce sediment being trapped thus destorying natural defences such as salt marches  providing less protection from high tides and storm surges. 

MANAGEMENT OF COASTAL SYSTEM- some alter sediment movement reducing the amount of protective beach matireals. 

BUILDING ON COASTAL LOW LANDS-this isncreases the impact of any floods as the natural defence has been ruined. 

RECLAIMING OF COASTAL LOW LANDS- reclaiming it and draining it makes the land shrink and become low lying. 

coastal flooding is more likely to increase due to sea level rise- 4-5 meters by 2100. 

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sea level changes-

they can either be..

EUSTATIC- caused bu the changes in the volume of water or shape of ocean basin. 

ISOSTATIC-  sea levels change is caused by vertical movments of the land relitive to the sea. 

Sea level change can have a number of impacts-

-more frequant and survear costal flooding

-submerged low lying land

-changes in coastline.

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the holderness coast

location- east yourkshire 

-fastest eroding coastline in europe.- 1.8 meters per year

-soft rock type- boulder clay

-narrow beaches mean less resistance against the waves erotion power

-powerful waves with a long fetch 

-propity prices have dropped as the risk from erotion has increased 

-lost 30 villages since roman times

-visitor numbers have decreassed by 30% since 1998

-800,000km2 of farmland is lost per year.

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options for coastal mangement

HOLD THE LINE- maintain the exsisting coastal defences

ADVANCE THE LINE- build new coastal defences out to sea

DO NOTHING- build no defences and deal with flooding when it comes.

RETREAT THE LINE- build nothing but move people away from the coast. 

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coastal defences- hard engenirering and soft

SEA WALL- expenceive

GABIONS- cheap and ugly

RIPRAP- farily cheap- don't do well in big storms

GROYNES- fairly cheap- can shift in storms

SOFT-

BEACH NURISHMENT 

BEACH STABILISATION

DUNE REGENIRATION

LAND USE MANAGMENT

CREATING MARSH LAND 

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SOFT ENGINEERING IS MORE SUSTANIBLE THEN HARD.

hard engenireeing-

-expencive

-disrupts natural processes 

soft engeinering-

-cheaper

-quicker

-needs less maintainance

soft engeniring is more sustanible as it has lower enviromental impacts and social costs.

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why defences need to be sustanible

-rise in sea levels puts more people at risk

-sustanible is better

-fits better with shore line managment plan SMP

-ICZM

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hard engeniring in the holderness-

-4.7km of sea wall

-2 rock groynes

-rip rap

-gabioyns

fieldwork and reasurch into coastal managment schemes-

research-

-rates of erotion before and after defences are put in place.

-flood risk before and after

-local news papers

fieldwork-

-questionaiires to find out how the scheme has effected people

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