Competition with Coasts: Australia
- Australlia is the most urbanised country in the world; 90% live in urban settlements. 60% live in 5 largest cities at the coast in Australlia
Four Reasons for movement
- Recents drought have made farming very difficult, and young are leaving the land to work in service jobs
- new immigrants usually move straight to coastal settlements
- coastal towns offer an outdoors lifestyle, as well as urban attractions
- House prices are cheaper in coastal towns, Young families chose to go there.
Competition with Coasts: Bournmouth
- Dorest's largest city
- 1815 – 695 People
- 2001 163,000 People
- Reason not natural increase because the birth rate is lower than the death rate because it has an aging population
- Reason for rapid population growth is inward migration of old people over 50 years
Why does it attract people?
- 2nd sunniest area in th UK
- High Environmental Quality
- University attracts young people
Economic- companies attracted
Coping with Pressure: Southampton
UK'S best naturalharbour.
- Sheltered from storms in English Channel.
- Deep water channels for large ships.
- Pressures on Southampton Waters
- Growth of employment of suburbs and villages close to the estuary.
- Growth is squeezed between New Forest Park and Southampton Waters
- New housing, development createsproblemswith sewage disposal.
Fawley Oil Refinery
- Largest Refinary in Uk
- 3000 workers, 2 million tonnesof crude oilper year
- 1.Salt marsh reduced in size.They contain huge numbersof marine speciesand feeding grounds for migrating birds.
- 2.Liquid Waste.Can be very warm so affects the temp of the water.Some speciesmature quicker.Change in food web.
Coping with Pressure: Jurassic coast
- -UK'S first coastalWorld Heritage Site.
- History and Culture
- -Significant for its fishing villagesand ports
- -ThomasHardy = books set in Dorset
- -Studland beach and sand dunes - high value environment
- -Protected by SSSI
- -Rare plants, insects, birdsand reptiles (sand dunes)
Case Study = Studland bay
- -1.5 million people visit every year
- -Important for wildlife, conservation, scientificpurpose
- -Habitat of rare animalsand plants
- -Threats= Non native species taking over grasses & Visitors responsible for footpath erosion.
Increasing Risks: Thames Estuary
Tide Levels Increasing
- Higher sea levels
- More storms
- Increasing amplitude ( tilting of UK south east is the worse.)
- Thames Barrage helped reduce risk of flooding, but
- Thames Gateway wants more development along the shore of the estuary
Increasing Risks: Holderness
Why is erosion such a problem?
- -2 typesof rock: very soft -> Chalk&Boulder Clay
- -Fetch-> Amount of wave energy. =Holderness has small fetch.
^ Increased by 4 things:
- =Currents / Swell = The Atlantic fetch adds to the north sea current which increases the wave energy drastically.Creates destructive waves. =Low pressure weather systems. =Deep sea floor along Holderness.Waves reach cliff without being weakened.
- -Longshore drift
- =Boulder clay erodes to particleswhich are easily transported out to sea, rather than accumulate as sand.
- =There isnot enough sand to stop the waves reaches the base of the cliff.They are narrow with no friction.
- =Sand that isproduced is taken away away by longshore drift
Management of Coastal areas: Holderness
Coastal zoning (red-lining)
- Device by planners - divides stretches of coast into land use zones
- Identifies zones at risk of erosion - where costs exceed benefits (protection)
- Reduces cost - targets coastalmanagement money - areas that benefit economically
- Integrated coastalmanagement:
- Sections of coast managed as a whole rather than by individual villages/towns
- Acting in one place - affects another part of the coastline
- Holderness coast is part of a cell which starts from Flamborough Head - factors affecting sediment input or transfer
- Coastal management - plans devised that affect whole cellor sub-cell- called Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs)- all local players are consulted to provide engineerswith all info needed to devise best plan for area.
SMP for Holderness Coast
- -Hold the line in places of economic value (gaspipeline terminal- Easington,towns - Bridlington and Hornsea)
- -Do nothing where coats in not worth protecting from erosion
Management of Coastal areas: Holderness Continued.
- Beach Nourishment at HORNSEA
- =To create a wider beach to protect the cliffs
- =To add sediment from longshore drift
- =Problem = a lot of sand can be removed in a storm.
- =Has to be renewed every year or so
- Rock Groynesat MAPPLETON
- =Built 2 groynes cost £2 million
- =Cliff face was re-graded
- =Ripple Effect, Terminal Groyne Syndrome
- Wooden Groynesat HORNSEA
- =Protects the beach as stops sediment from travelling.
- =However starvesMAPPLETON of sediment.
- =Wavesattack the cliffsmore
Urban Rebranding: London 2012
- The site was contaminated, derelict and abandoned before the regeneration
- It created significant employment and businessopportunities from the construction and operation of the OlympicPark and the Westfield shopping centre
- Over 4,000 new "affordable" homeswere converted after the games
- £17 billion was invested in public transport
- The sports facilitiesused in the gamesare now avaliable for locals to help the legacy.
- The slogan of the gameswas "Inspire a Generation" and they aimed to help the younger generation have a better quality of life
- £9 billion of public money was invested in East London
- UK Government, London Development Agency
- Regional Government - London Assembly
- Mayor of London, leader of assembly,Boris Johnson.
- Local Government, 4 London Borough Councilsare affected by Olympics
Urban Rebranding: London Docklands
What the case study shows:
- The economic decline of an area
- Example of a rebranding process that was not completely successful.Effects on the locals.
- Deindustrialisation occurred because of containerisation in the 1970s.
- The area became a derelict wasteland.
- Government incentives and low rent tempted business owners attracted people to the area.
- The work was focused at tertiary sectors, e.g.banking, whilst the Docklandshistory had focused on manual secondary industry. -> Became Canary Wharf
- In the 1920s the London Docklands was one of the largest ports in the world.
- 100,000 jobs were lost by men who had manual occupations.
- In 1981, it set to regenerate the area using both public and private money.
- 20% of people in the East End do not want to live there.
Rural Rebranding: Cornwall
Key players involved in the rebranding process.
- EU, South West Development Agency
- Cornwall Heritage Trust
- Millennium Commission (sponsored Eden project)
- Green Peninsula *Promotes renewable energy)
- Second most deprived county (33% deprived householeds)
- former industrial and mining areashave a large amount of deprivation
- In 2005, average earnings for fulltime males was 25% below the UK average
- 4 million people visit Cornwall a year.
- 25% of the residents re directly employed by tourism.
- In 1999, Cornwallwas successful in gaining Objective One Funding, which helps boost investment.
- By 2007, £230 million hasbeen spent on projects across Cornwall.
Rural Rebranding: The Eden Project
The flagship project was the Eden Project
- Was opened in 2001 near St Austell.
- It cost £80 m build and investment came from the Mellennium
- Commission funds, public funds, bank loans and revenues.
- 95% of the employees are from Cornwall
- Spends 61% of the purchasing budget in Cornwall.
- This is nearly £5 million and helped create a multiplier effect in the area
- Visitors to the Eden Project spend £16.3 million a year
- The eden project has Englands longest zip wire and holds Eden Sessions where bands like Mumford and Suns, Oasis and Vampire Weekend have played.
- Traffic levels = congestion, noise pollution, air quality
Rural Rebranding: Cornwall Rebranding Schemes
- University College Falmouth an Exeter University joined forces to create the combined Universities in Cornwall (CUC).
- The CUC helps graduates set up businesses or secure jobs in knowledge-based companies in Cornwall,
- trying to cut the ‘brain drain’ of graduates leaving Cornwall.
Jamies Olivers Resturant
- It allows people to visit the restaurant but this one restaurant does not rebrand Cornwall through culinary needs. It attracts people because Jamie Oliver is a celebrity and so attracts people who want to live there.
- It trains people with culinary skills and this could be beneficial as these skills are transferable. It allows people to visit for a whole day and experience the whole of Cornwall.
- It trains disadvantaged people and provides them with opportunities.
Coastal Rebranding: Blackpool
- In 1896 it was a holiday destination however there was a decline in the industry and advances in global tourism
- The rebranding strategies put in place have been focused on bringing in more leisure and tourism
- March 2007 Blackpool council signed a 3 month deal costing £500million to create a 'storm' city and create a multi-themed indoor entertainment centre
- Talbot Gateway - organised by RE Blackpool regeneration company (player)- transforming the run down area into a public plaza and retail space which was beneficial to locals and tourists.
Sustainable Rebranding: Brazil, Curitiba
- Transport is one price for one journey .
- Recycling is promoted in schools .
- 1.5 million tree's planted 54m2 per resident of open space.
- 560 factories, 50,000 jobs and 6000 other enterprises.
- Bottom up approach to rebranding.
Sustainable Rebranding: Leicester
- The UK's first environment city in 1990 and in 1996 won the European sustainability award.
- Lots of schemes took place to conserve wildlife and energy and noise reduction.
- Top down approach to rebranding by a partnership of organisations.