Crowded Coasts and Rebranding Case studies

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Competition with Coasts: Australia

  • Australlia is the most urbanised country in the world; 90% live in urban settlements. 60% live in 5 largest cities at the coast in Australlia

Four Reasons for movement

  • Recents drought have made farming very difficult, and young are leaving the land to work in service jobs
  • new immigrants usually move straight to coastal settlements
  • coastal towns offer an outdoors lifestyle, as well as urban attractions
  • House prices are cheaper in coastal towns, Young families chose to go there.
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Competition with Coasts: Bournmouth

  • Dorest's largest city
  • 1815 – 695 People
  • 2001 163,000 People
  • Reason not natural increase because the birth rate is lower than the death rate because it has an aging population
  • Reason for rapid population growth is inward migration of old people over 50 years

Why does it attract people?


  • 2nd sunniest area in th UK
  • High Environmental Quality


  • University attracts young people

Economic- companies attracted


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Coping with Pressure: Southampton

UK'S best naturalharbour.

  • Sheltered from storms in English Channel.
  • Deep water channels for large ships.
  • Pressures on Southampton Waters
  • Growth of employment of suburbs and villages close to the estuary.
  • Growth is squeezed between New Forest Park and Southampton Waters
  • New housing, development createsproblemswith sewage disposal.

Fawley Oil Refinery

  • Largest Refinary in Uk
  • 3000 workers, 2 million tonnesof crude oilper year

Economic Impacts

  • 1.Salt marsh reduced in size.They contain huge numbersof marine speciesand feeding grounds for migrating birds.
  • 2.Liquid Waste.Can be very warm so affects the temp of the water.Some speciesmature quicker.Change in food web.
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Coping with Pressure: Jurassic coast


  • -UK'S first coastalWorld Heritage Site.
  • History and Culture
  • -Significant for its fishing villagesand ports
  • -ThomasHardy = books set in Dorset


  • -Studland beach and sand dunes - high value environment
  • -Protected by SSSI
  • -Rare plants, insects, birdsand reptiles (sand dunes)

Case Study = Studland bay

  • -1.5 million people visit every year
  • -Important for wildlife, conservation, scientificpurpose
  • -Habitat of rare animalsand plants
  • -Threats= Non native species taking over grasses & Visitors responsible for footpath erosion.
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Increasing Risks: Thames Estuary

Tide Levels Increasing

Due to:

  • Higher sea levels
  • More storms
  • Increasing amplitude ( tilting of UK south east is the worse.)
  • Thames Barrage helped reduce risk of flooding, but
  • Thames Gateway wants more development along the shore of the estuary
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Increasing Risks: Holderness

Why is erosion such a problem?

  • -2 typesof rock: very soft -> Chalk&Boulder Clay
  • -Fetch-> Amount of wave energy. =Holderness has small fetch.

^ Increased by 4 things:

  • =Currents / Swell = The Atlantic fetch adds to the north sea current which increases the wave energy drastically.Creates destructive waves. =Low pressure weather systems. =Deep sea floor along Holderness.Waves reach cliff without being weakened.
  • -Longshore drift
  • =Boulder clay erodes to particleswhich are easily transported out to sea, rather than accumulate as sand.
  • =There isnot enough sand to stop the waves reaches the base of the cliff.They are narrow with no friction.
  • =Sand that isproduced is taken away away by longshore drift
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Management of Coastal areas: Holderness

Coastal zoning (red-lining)

  • Device by planners - divides stretches of coast into land use zones
  • Identifies zones at risk of erosion - where costs exceed benefits (protection)
  • Reduces cost - targets coastalmanagement money - areas that benefit economically
  • Integrated coastalmanagement:
  • Sections of coast managed as a whole rather than by individual villages/towns
  • Acting in one place - affects another part of the coastline 
  • Holderness coast is part of a cell which starts from Flamborough Head - factors affecting sediment input or transfer
  • Coastal management - plans devised that affect whole cellor sub-cell- called Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs)- all local players are consulted to provide engineerswith all info needed to devise best plan for area.

SMP for Holderness Coast

  • -Hold the line in places of economic value (gaspipeline terminal- Easington,towns - Bridlington and Hornsea)
  • -Do nothing where coats in not worth protecting from erosion
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Management of Coastal areas: Holderness Continued.


  • Beach Nourishment at HORNSEA
  • =To create a wider beach to protect the cliffs
  • =To add sediment from longshore drift
  • =Problem = a lot of sand can be removed in a storm.
  • =Has to be renewed every year or so


  • Rock Groynesat MAPPLETON
  • =Built 2 groynes cost £2 million
  • =Cliff face was re-graded
  • =Ripple Effect, Terminal Groyne Syndrome
  • Wooden Groynesat HORNSEA
  • =Protects the beach as stops sediment from travelling.
  • =However starvesMAPPLETON of sediment.
  • =Wavesattack the cliffsmore
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Urban Rebranding: London 2012

  • The site was contaminated, derelict and abandoned before the regeneration
  • It created significant employment and businessopportunities from the construction and operation of the OlympicPark and the Westfield shopping centre

Key Facts:

  • Over 4,000 new "affordable" homeswere converted after the games
  • £17 billion was invested in public transport
  • The sports facilitiesused in the gamesare now avaliable for locals to help the legacy.
  • The slogan of the gameswas "Inspire a Generation" and they aimed to help the younger generation have a better quality of life
  • £9 billion of public money was invested in East London

Key Players:

  • InternationalOrganisation:
  • UK Government, London Development Agency
  • Regional Government - London Assembly
  • Mayor of London, leader of assembly,Boris Johnson.
  • Local Government, 4 London Borough Councilsare affected by Olympics
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Urban Rebranding: London Docklands

What the case study shows:

  • The economic decline of an area
  • Example of a rebranding process that was not completely successful.Effects on the locals.


  • Deindustrialisation occurred because of containerisation in the 1970s.
  • The area became a derelict wasteland.
  • Government incentives and low rent tempted business owners attracted people to the area.
  • The work was focused at tertiary sectors, e.g.banking, whilst the Docklandshistory had focused on manual secondary industry. -> Became Canary Wharf

Key facts:

  • In the 1920s the London Docklands was one of the largest ports in the world.
  • 100,000 jobs were lost by men who had manual occupations.
  • In 1981, it set to regenerate the area using both public and private money.
  • 20% of people in the East End do not want to live there.
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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

Key players involved in the rebranding process.

  • EU, South West Development Agency
  • Cornwall Heritage Trust
  • Millennium Commission (sponsored Eden project)
  • Green Peninsula *Promotes renewable energy)


  • Second most deprived county (33% deprived householeds)
  • former industrial and mining areashave a large amount of deprivation
  • In 2005, average earnings for fulltime males was 25% below the UK average

Key Facts:

  • 4 million people visit Cornwall a year.
  • 25% of the residents re directly employed by tourism.
  • In 1999, Cornwallwas successful in gaining Objective One Funding, which helps boost investment.
  • By 2007, £230 million hasbeen spent on projects across Cornwall.
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Rural Rebranding: The Eden Project

The flagship project was the Eden Project

  • Was opened in 2001 near St Austell.
  • It cost £80 m build and investment came from the Mellennium
  • Commission funds, public funds, bank loans and revenues.
  • 95% of the employees are from Cornwall
  • Spends 61% of the purchasing budget in Cornwall.
  • This is nearly £5 million and helped create a multiplier effect in the area
  • Visitors to the Eden Project spend £16.3 million a year
  • The eden project has Englands longest zip wire and holds Eden Sessions where bands like Mumford and Suns, Oasis and Vampire Weekend have played.
  • Traffic levels = congestion, noise pollution, air quality
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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall Rebranding Schemes

‘Knowledge economy’

  • University College Falmouth an Exeter University joined forces to create the combined Universities in Cornwall (CUC).
  • The CUC helps graduates set up businesses or secure jobs in knowledge-based companies in Cornwall,
  • trying to cut the ‘brain drain’ of graduates leaving Cornwall. 

Jamies Olivers Resturant

  • It allows people to visit the restaurant but this one restaurant does not rebrand Cornwall through culinary needs. It attracts people because Jamie Oliver is a celebrity and so attracts people who want to live there.
  • It trains people with culinary skills and this could be beneficial as these skills are transferable. It allows people to visit for a whole day and experience the whole of Cornwall.

Key Facts:

  • It trains disadvantaged people and provides them with opportunities.
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Coastal Rebranding: Blackpool

  • In 1896 it was a holiday destination however there was a decline in the industry and advances in global tourism
  • The rebranding strategies put in place have been focused on bringing in more leisure and tourism
  • March 2007 Blackpool council signed a 3 month deal costing £500million to create a 'storm' city and create a multi-themed indoor entertainment centre
  • Talbot Gateway - organised by RE Blackpool regeneration company (player)- transforming the run down area into a public plaza and retail space which was beneficial to locals and tourists.
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Sustainable Rebranding: Brazil, Curitiba

  • Transport is one price for one journey .
  • Recycling is promoted in schools .
  • 1.5 million tree's planted 54m2 per resident of open space.
  • 560 factories, 50,000 jobs and 6000 other enterprises.
  • Bottom up approach to rebranding.
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Sustainable Rebranding: Leicester

  • The UK's first environment city in 1990 and in 1996 won the European sustainability award.
  • Lots of schemes took place to conserve wildlife and energy and noise reduction.
  • Top down approach to rebranding by a partnership of organisations.
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