1. Main conclusion – a conclusion supported by reasons and an intermediate conclusion. A claim that the author wants to persuade the reader to believe.
2. Intermediate conclusion – a conclusion supported by reasons which GIVES SUPPORT to the another conclusion – the main conclusion
3. Counter argument – a counter conclusion supported with a counter reason
4. Counter assertion – a counter conclusion that does not have a reason. Example: it is bad for young children to have a mobile (it is not mentioned why)
5. Evidence – use of numbers, statistics, surveys etc to support a reason.
6. Opinion – something someone believes in. the writer does not persuade the reader to believe his opinion.
1. Explanation – the writer assumes that the reader has already agreed on something and explaining is just telling why and how something the way it is is.
2. Description – the writer does not want to reader to agree on something. A description only describes/portrays/illustrates the way something is.
3. Example – something which is used as evidence – it can be a percentage/average
4. Reason – a claim that supports or back up the intermediate or main conclusion
5. Assumption – something that is not mention but is essential to reach the conclusion
6. Hypothetical reasoning – If A then B
7. Flaws – a fault in the pattern of reasoning. A flaw weakens a claim or a reason.
1. Appeal – a reference to something or someone. It is used to get the reader to agree on something
2. Analogy – comparing two situations to make the reader agree on something
3. Principles – a guide to instruction in an argument that may be applied to other situation (and it will still make sense)
4. Knowledge – something you know is true. It can be verified to be sure that it is true.
5. Belief – something you believe is true but you know it can false. It is sometime not possible to check if it is true.
6. Refute – finding someone’s mistake in their argument
7. Repudiate – disown information without saying why
8. Sufficient condition – a condition that is enough for something to happen
1. Necessary condition – a condition that must be present for something else to happen
2. Inconsistency – claims that clash. They can’t both be right at the same time. One contradicts the other.
3. Corroboration – 2 or more claims that lead to the same conclusion. They can both be true at the same time.
4. Inference – logical link between the reasons and the conclusion
5. Ambiguity – a word that has 2 meaning.
6. Hearsay – evidence that is from another source who may have interpreted it.