1. Unrelated Conclusion: when reasons and conclusion arent relevant to each other because they arent about the same aspect of a topic.
2. Conflation: using 2 different words as if they mean the same thing.
3. Confusion between necessary and sufficient conditions
4. Slippery Slope: where one small event is described as leading to an extreme result.
5. Circular Argument: where the conclusion simply repeats a reason so there is nothing to persuade us.
6. Tu Quoqe: saying its right/wrong to do something just because someone else does or doesnt do it too.
7. Two wrongs dont make a right: saying that a wrong action is reason for you to also do a wrong action.
8. Hasty Generalisations: where a claim about a few things supports a conclusion about many things or everything.
9. Sweeping Generalisations: using claims about many things to support a conclusion about one thing.
10. The Straw person: the counter argument is misrepresented or distorted so its easier to dismiss.
11. Ad Hominem: attacking the person arguing rather than the argument itself.
12. Restricting the options: where conclusions are the best option because we are only shown a few choices.
13. Post Hoc: A caused B because A happened first.
14: Simplifying casual relations: saying one thing is entirely responsible for something when there are other factors.
15. Confusing Cause and effect: getting the two the wrong way around.
1. Appeals to emotion: people's feelings used to persuade them
2. Appeals to authority: people with authority are mentioned.
3. Appeals to tradition: saying that just because something has happened in the past means it should happen in the future.
4. Appeals to history: assuming that something will happen just because it usually happends.
5. Appeals to popularity: saying a conclusion is true just because lots of people believe it.