Critical Thinking

Flaws of arguments and explanation

Appeal flaw


Identifying analogies

HideShow resource information


Can be remembered by

send GAS to 4C TRAP ST

1 of 14


Where a conclusion is drawn from one example and applied more widely

2 of 14

A=Ad Hominem

Where the reasoning against an opponents argument is based on a personal attack on the opponent rather than the reasoning about the opponents argument

3 of 14

S=Slippery slope

Where the argument goes too quickly and contains too many assumptions

4 of 14

4C: 1=Causation

The reason or evidence given for a conclusion is only partly true or a different reason is a more likely cause

5 of 14

4C: 2= Conflation

is where two or more different ideas are brought together and treated as the same thing

6 of 14

4C: 3=Circular reasoning

the conclusion repeats the original claim or reasoning

7 of 14

4C: 4=Confusing necessary and sufficient condition

a condition has to be strong enough (sufficient) not just present (necessary)

8 of 14

T= tu quoquo

is where someone attempts to justify an action on the basis that another person did it

9 of 14

R= restricting the options (false dichotomy)

here the writer leads you to the conclusion by ignoring other options which are available. You think the only ones available are the one or two in the argument.

10 of 14

A= arguing from one thing to another

where the reason does not support the conclusion

11 of 14

P=post hoc

where it is suggested that because something has always happened in the past then it will continue to do so.

12 of 14

S= straw person/straw man

where an arguer picks on a small or weak part of an opponents argument, shows it is weak and then concludes that the whole argument is weak

13 of 14

T= two wrongs dont make a right

is where someone attempts to justify one bad action on the basis that another different, bad action was accepted

14 of 14




This was confusing at first. But when you understand it it is really clever!

Thank you :)



I wish this was printable! it is great!

Similar Critical Thinking resources:

See all Critical Thinking resources »