- Aims to define crime and the explanations for behaviours which cause it. It also looks at different methods for treating offenders, for example through token economy or anger management. The judgements of criminals are also studied, as well as the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.
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- Any behaviour which breaks known laws. This behaviour can be learned and usually stems from aggression or anti social behaviour. Murder is an example of a crime.
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- Repeating a behaviour despite previous punishment or treatment for it. For example, behaving aggressively after being previously treated through token economy for this behaviour.
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- A system of treatment based on operant conditioning which includes primary and secondary reinforcers. Offenders are treated through this programme by being rewarded with secondary reinforcers when they do not show aggressive behaviour.
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- Behaviours which do not necessarily break any laws, but which are viewed negatively by society. For example, aggression.
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- Expecting particular behaviours from someone based on their appearance alone. These expectations may come from media representations or pre-existing schemas. For example, expecting aggression from a teenager wearing a hoody.
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- The demonstration of behaviours which are paid attention to, remembered and reproduced. This behaviour may be anti-social or aggressive and may lead to crime. The reproduction of this behaviour may also be referred to as modelling.
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Eye Witness Testimony:
- The statement of a witness to a crime. This statement may be inaccurate due to a number of factors – for example leading questions or the misinformation effect. Stereotypes may also bias eyewitness testimony, as judgements are made of certain individuals.
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