- The statistics don't show actual offending rates, meaning the higher rate of arrests could be due to police action, and because the majority of offenders are males aged between 14-25, and the blck community has a high proportion of these, they are overrepresented.
- Cultures of resistance- ethnic minority groups have developed a culture that resists the racist opression of the majority society- may turn to crime.
- High arrest rates of ethnic minorities are a reflection of reality- Mayhew et al (1993)- crime is performed by people from poor ares in which blacks and ethnic minorities are overrepresented.
- Philips and Brown (1998)- more afro carribbean arrests, but no evidence to show they are treat differently
- Lord Searman (1981)- institutional racism- there are some 'bad apples' in the police force.
- Left realism -despite racist police practices, crime rates for afro carribbeans would still be high.
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Mayhew et al (1993)
Philips and Brown (1998)
Lord Searman (1981)
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