Crime control and prevention


Situational approaches

Making the situation more difficult for the offender so they avoid the target.

Situational approaches; making the target more difficult; this is known as 'target hardening' this could involve CCTV, post coding goods,locks and alarms

a lot of violence used to happen in pubs,so they introduced plastic cups and gave pubs more room to prevent collisions.

Situational approaches; favoured by Right Realists, who focus on crime prevention over catching offenders.


they ignore the social causes of crime so not attacking the origins of the problem.

target hardening just forces criminals to go elsewhere and choose 'softer targets' ; this is known as DISPLACEMENT THEORY

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Environmental prevention

making an area APPEAR safer then it actually is.

R.Rs Wilson and Kelling (1982) 'Broken Windows' in order to stop the crime from happening, the solution was to 'fix the window'

This strategy was responsiblefor cutting crime in NY.

The 'clean car' programme saw subway cars that had been vandalised moved and not but back until they were clean. the area improved and crime rates fell

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Socail and community approaches

preventing people from becomomg criminals by reducting material and cultural deprivation

this approach is favoured by Left Realists and focuses on lifting people out of poverty as well as getting the police and stronger communities working together.

they have also focused on tackling social deprivation through improved community housing and schooling

eg the Perry - Pre school project this meant fewer arrests

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another way of controlling behaviour


Synoptic surviellence;another way of social control we behave because of the fear of being watched

Risk management; survillence is being used to focus on groups over induviduals

eg a young muslim being targeted

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