- Created by: Jess_Grace
- Created on: 17-03-18 14:37
The Local Context
- Whitechapel – East End of London 30,000 inhabitants 1000 homeless
- Sanitation was poor, little fresh drinking water and sewers running into the street
- Theft of personal property, domestic abuse,
- Stealing, prostitution,
- Intimidation and gang activity,
- Petty crimes, begging,
- Tension between racial groups,
- Disorder on the streets ( public houses)
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- Slum areas- rookeries- dirt disease – crime
- Shared rooms/beds
- 1 reported as having 123 rooms with 757 people
- Lodging Houses- bed often squalid conditionsover 200 lodging houses- where 8000 people lived
- Peabody Estate- slum clearance programme – rookiers knocked down blocks of flats in there place- opened in 1881- 286 flats – 15p for one room- 30p for 3 rooms. Average weekly wage was £ 1.12
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Workhouse and orphanages
- Workhouse offered food and shelter for those too poor to survive. Inmates – old- sick- disabled-orphans
- Conditions very harsh to put people off entering them- last resort.
- Tough manual labour, uniforms, families split up
- Thomas Barnardo- ‘no destitute child ever refused admission’. First project a school for street children.
- First boys home in 1870- then girls by 1905 100 Barnardo orphanages- caring for 85 children in each.
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- Foundries- metal
- Sweated labours- tailoring- shoe making matches- tanneries
- Sweat shops small cramped conditions – long hours – up to 20 a day
- Railway construction
- London Docks
- Work often varied day to day – unemployment was high
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- The Irish – expands from 1840’s – London a stop on the way to America but many stay working as navies- on the canals and docks.
- Violence when drunk and not well liked by others
- Fenians – wanted freedom from UK rule- seen as religious terrorist group
- 1860’s surge of anti Irish / anti catholic sentiment
- Special Branch of MET police following attacks
- Fenians made the life for Irish Immigrants even more difficult
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Immigration -Eastern European and Jewish
- 1880’s fleeing pogroms in Russia, Poland and Germany
- Jews separated themselves from other communities
- Resented by locals- fear of cultural differences and attitudes to work and business
- Jews were quick to find work and set up businessmany successful – resented
- Would employ new Jewish arrivals over locals
- Tailoring sweat shop could work Sundays
- Stood out due to clothing and food practises and customs and language
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- Revolutionary political movements in Europe often ended up in Britain as seen as more tolerant of beliefs
- Whitechapel a refuge for other nations terrorists!
- British Socialists party fought for labourers/ agricultural workers and women's rights.
- Saw police as the face of the government who didn’t care about the poor
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- By 1888 high unemployment- acute housing shortage and national attention on immigration issues led to high tensions
- Whitechapel renowned as a very violent area
- Easy to blame JTR murders on a Jew.
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- Metropolitan Police set up in 1829- 20 areas
- Whitechapel area known as H division
- H Division -
- A Superintendent, Chief Inspector, 27 Inspectors, 37 Sergeants, 500 ordinary officers or constables
On the ‘BEAT’
- Constables march to their beat area.
- Night stops and questioning people.
- Meet up with beat sergeant to report the day.
- If a beat constable missed a crime on his beatcould get into serious trouble.
- Work often boring sometimes dangerous.
- Pay not great- Quality of recruits variable in the early years.
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- 1829 varying attitude to the police
- By mid 1800’s quite respectable- keepers of peace’ bobby’
- Accepted that police were their to help.
- But in areas like Whitechapel police seen more negatively.
- Attacks by violent gangs were relatively common.
- Economic depression of the 1870’s – discontent boiled over to upholders of law.
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Problems facing the police
- Difficult for women to find work. Not illegal but social and moral issue
- No contraception so illegal abortions often followed in dirty back streets.
- Police turned a blind eye- Very little sympathy for these women
- By 1888 62 brothels and 1200 prostitutes in Whitechapel alone.
- Only affordable escape- public housesgin houses- opium houses
- 1 mile of Whitechapel road- 45 buildings serving alcohol.
- Drunkenness often resulted in more crime- assault- thefts
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Problems facing the police
Localised immigrant areas
- High tension- rookiers poor lighting lodging houses-
- Very difficult for the police to access and catch criminals in these areas
- Gangs Bessarabian Tigers- gangs from eastern Europe
- Protection money- violent- fear
- Impossible to gather evidence to take to trail
- H Division over stretched and understaffed
Police seen as social worker
- Vagrancy – pubs- orphans
- Litter- sewage- accidents
- Runaway horses- soup kitchens
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Investigative Policing ‘JTR’
- Follow up direct leads
- Post mortems
- Following up on journalists theories
- Following up on coroners reports
- Following up witness statements
- Soup kitchens to talk to local residents
- Blood hounds House to house
- Bertillion System Photos measurements
- No fingerprinting until 1901
- No telephone until 1901
- Clues on the victim
- Photographs of crime scene
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Why did H division fail to catch JTR?
- 1888 5 women murdered
- Many challenges faced by the police for these high profile murders
- Abberline and CID worked with H division- over 300 wrote to them claiming to be the murderer
- Many saw it as an opportunity to blame Jews and immigrants groups as much resentment in the area
- Conflict between City of London police and H division both wanted to be the first to catch the murderer – little co operation.
- Public critism huge despite best efforts by the police
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Why did H division fail to catch JTR?
- The media publicised many stories – looked as though the journalist were better at investigating than the police
- They sensationalised – actually made it very difficult for the police to run a proper investigation- often blaming ‘foreign’ – guess work and unreliable interviews with locals
- H Division and MET police had no forensic techniques – would be another 12 years
- Couldn’t detect between animal and human blood
- Local business men and traders went on patrols looking for the ripper
- Offered a reward which the police had refused to do
- VC determined to embarrass the police.
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