crime & deviance theorists

  • Created by: ericab
  • Created on: 11-04-18 16:06

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF C & D

  • NEWBURN (2007) - crime = label for behaviour prohibited by state
  • DOWNES & ROCK (2007) - ambiguity = key feature in rule breaking - judgement depends on context, motives, person (swearing at friends okay, at teachers = deviant) 
  • PLUMMER (1971) - societal deviance + situational deviance = deviance culturally relative 
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FUNCTIONALIST POV

  • DURKHEIM (1895) - c/d inevitable - exposed to different circumstances (differing values) - threatens social order BUT benefits: stops atrophy of values (reminds of boundaries - sensationalism), enables social change + progression (system reaction), warning device something in society not working 
  • MERTON (1957) - strain theory & anomie/normlessness - societal goals - unequal society = unequal chances of achieving them - adopt 'modes of adaption' (e.g. crime) 

EVALUATION 

  • TAYLOR ET AL - not everyone commited to mainstream goals 
  • MATZA - make deliquent out to be different - however they show outrage/guilt/shame re crime + techniques of neutralisation like all 
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SUBCULTURE THEORIES

  • COHEN (1971) - building on MERTON - w/c juenile delinquency & position in social structure - mainstream goals inaccessible = 'strains' & status frustration - direct opposites to norms - status within subc - revenge against society 

COHEN - EVALUATION 

  • MILLER (1962) - l.w/c = own subculture - can't reject mainstream values if never had them 
  • MATZA (1964) - deliquents not commited to delinquent values - drift in and out - reaction to lack of achievement
  • CLOWARD & OHLIN (1960) - COHEN - not allow for variety of responses - varied social circumstances - 3 types: criminal subcultures, conflict subcultures, & retreatist subculture

C & O - EVALUATION 

  • MILLER (1962) - distinctive male w/c subculture contributes to crime - focal concerns - tough/masc, smart/shrewd, trouble, search for thrills - concerns exaggerated in youth - deliquency, not opposition 
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CONTROL THEORY

HIRSCHI (1969) - social order based on socialisation via institutions - we all have weaknesses - social bonds encourage self control, conformity, no crime - social bonds weakened = crime. 4 bonds: belief (morals), commitment (to conventional activity, stakes/risk), involvement (kept busy/groups - time/opportunity), attachment (sensitive to others needs) 

GOTTREDSON & HIRSCHI (1990) - weakened bonds - not explain crime - most also be opportunity 

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RADICAL CRIMINOLOGY - MARXIST POV

(CAPITALISM CRIMINOGENIC + SOCIAL EXCLUSION) 

  • CHABLISS (1975) - laws = instruments of r/c + reflect their values - heart of capitalist system is protection of private property/r/c interest - state defines crimes in line. 1 rule rich, another poor - w/c more likely to be procecuted
  • BOX (1983) - what is 'serious crime' = ideological constructed - e.g. violence & damage not corporate or state crime - agencies of control protect interests, power - criminalise opposition - control workforce
  • SNIDER (1999) - capitalist states only pass healthy/safety/pollution laws regulating private business - public pressure - weaken laws, enforced to minimise impediments to profits/investors - laws appearing to benefit all = smokescreen
  • PEARCE (1976) - 'crimes of powerful' - worst = commite dby r/c - white collar/corporate - rarely prosecuted - selective law enforcement diverts attention from crimes of capitalism - blame crime on individual not class inequalities
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NEO-MARXIST POV

TAYLOR ET AL (1973) - 'NEW CRIMINOLOGY' - Marxist features + draw on interpretivist - develop 'fully social theory of deviance' - wider social origins (context), immediate origins (specific sit), actual act/meaning (meaning/reason), immediate origins of societal reaction (how who react?), wider origins of societal reaction (wider system/sociatal reaction & why?), outcomes of reaction on deviant's further action

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INTERACTIONIST POV - LABELLING THEORY

  • BECKER (1963) - act only deviant when defined as such - whether label applied depends on sociatal reaction. 'OUTSIDERS' - applying those rules to particular people & labelling them as outsiders'...'deviance is not a quality of the act'...'deviant behaviour is behaviour that people label so' - agencies with power to create/enforce rules/definition = moral entrepreneurs.
    • BECKER - police operate within conceptions/stereotypes re 'trouble'/criminal tyles/areas - actions depend on stereotypes of groups/offences - less on actual offences/behaviour
    • 'Master status' leads to secondary deviance
    • Labelling process + reaction = self f f  + deviant career - face rejection/closed opportunities - act as labelled - prison makes label stick - lack of means - joins/IDs with deviant group - support/understanding
  • BRAITHWAITE - + to Becker's 'master label' - 'disintegrative shaming' = view as outsiders - see no chance of irentegration - return to crime after prison - 're-integrative shaming' = dissaproval, not cast out
  • LAWERT (1972) - primary deviance (deviance not publically labelled - few consequences), secondary deviance (publically labelled - stigma) 
  • COHEN (1971) - deviancy amplication & moral panics
  • PLUMMER (2011) - few today define as labelling theorists but POV has been influential
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FEMINIST POV - 'MALESTREAM' STUDIES

  • HEIDSENSOHN & SILVESTRI (2012) - male dom early sociology characterised by: 'amnesia' (forgetting women), 'neglect & distortion' (little attempt to explain female deviance, gender gap, & female victimisation) 
  • HEIDENSOHN (1996) - researchers were mostly male, 'malestream' romanticised male w/c 'rogue males' - 'glamour', 'street-cred', less female deviance to study - less detectable crime
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FEMINIST CRIMINOLOGY

  • SMART (1976) - women offenders = 'double deviants' - break law & gender roles - more stigma
  • MESSERSCHIDT (1993) - crime/violence (dom v) = means of 'accomplishinh masculinity' failed otherwise
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LEFT REALISM

  • LEA & YOUNG (1984) - ALTERNATIVE TO MARXISM - victim surveys - crime serious problem esp. inner city - policies needed to address: most everyday worrisome crime (street crime), most likely perpetrators (young, w/c males), greatest fear of victimhood (in w/c deprived white/e m inner city) - relative deprivation, marginalisation, & subculture
    • to tackle crime, examine relationships in/influence of  'square of crime' (social structural factors & state formal control, the public/informal control, role of victims, the offenders)
  • YOUNG (1999, 2003) - late modernity - media saturated - consumer culture = raised standards - socio.eco exclusion + cultural inclusion - 'bulimic society' - media images of consumer lifestyle - 'vomit' out expectations bcos economics - resentment in youth (relative deprivation). Exacerbated by growing individualism,weakening informal controls, & economic inequality/change. Toxic mix. 
  • LYNG (1990, 2005) - 'edgework' - thrill-seeking/risk taking behaviour - may include crime
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RIGHT REALISM

  • NEW RIGHT 
  • HIRSCHI'S CONTROL THEORY 
  • MURRY (1989,90) - crime linked to 'an unemployed, workshy underclass' - broken communities 
  • CORNISH & CLARKE (1986) - rational choice & opportunity - choose crime when benefits greater than risk - increase risks or reduce opportunities
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POSTMODERNIST

  • HENRY & MILOVANOVIC (1999) - crime = using power to show disrespect/causing harm to others - regardless of legality - all threats against those pursuing diverse lifetyles/IDs (hate crime) - harms of reduction & harms of repression 
  • LEVIN & MCDEVITT (2008) - perps of hate crimes derives thrills/escapism from inflicting suffering on those seen as different
  • LYING (1990,2005) - crime as 'edgework' - commit for excitement & thrills of risk seeking/exploring boundaries - ID source? esp. in youth 

CRITICISM 

  • LEA (1998) - traditional theories (marginality, relative deprivation, subculture) - still provide starting points - why denied harmless ID sources. Postmod just re-discovering old theories
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CRIME STATISTICS

  • HM INSPECTORATE OF CONSTABULARY (2014) - almost 1/5 reported crimes unrecordered re claims PRC stats = 'fiddled'
  • MAGUIRE (2002) - est about 3% crime England/Wales ended in conviction. Privatisation/breaking up communities = crimes that would have been dealt with privately reported 
  • CSEW - people don't report crimes because: crime trivial/no loss/police uninterested/unable to help, private matter dealt with themselves, inconvient to report, + if a common occurance, own fault, offender not responsible for own actions, or fear of reprisals, dislike of police, harm reputation of instutution
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ETHNICITY: NEO-MARXISM, LEFT REALISM, & POVERTY/EX

  • HALL ET AL (1978) - NEO-MARXIST - 1970s black crime - UK facing 'crisis of hegenomy' - growing police/Afr C conflict - selective publication of stats showing black crime - media = moral panic, created 'black mugger' stereotype - demand for irl solution. no real increase in mugging - moral panic used to justify more repressive/aggressive policing against b community, e.g stop and search - generate mistrust 
  • LEA & YOUNG - LEFT REALIST - most crimes reported by public not police - hard to explain police racism? Black crime higher for some offences bcos marginality (educational underachievement, lack of employment, lack of legit opportunities), relative deprivation, subculture
  • BOWLING & PHILLIPS (2002) - higher levels of b robbery - poverty & social exclusion (more likely to suffer) - peer group status & powerful ID ((effects Asian pop - lower crime rate due to clearer ID and social control?))
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ETHNICITY: LABELLING & RACISM IN CJS

  • REINER (2000) - police = racist 'canteen culture' incl suspicion, racism, & macho values - enourages stereotypes - link between crime and e minorities ca be seen as fabrication or product of police/CJS racism 
  • PHILLIPS & BOWLING (2012) - evidence of racial discrimination: indirect racial discrimination (mistrust of police due to racism = illegible for cautions etc, social position - social charas make custody more likely - poor housing, lack of community - abscond), direct racial discrimination (stop & search, arresrs/charges/court, discrimination in sentencing, over-rep in prison)
    • 2012 - stop & search = unfair criminalisation - undermines police support - resentment contributed to 2011 riots
    • 2002 - regular s & s = self fufilling prophecy - higher robbery = response to labelling
    • 2012 - evidence showing abuse, denial of privelages, & disproportionate discipline of em prisoners - Asian stereotyping as 'islamic terrorists'/ 'security risks' 
  • FITSGERALD (1998) - police discrimination greater when scope to exploit own intuition, stereotypes, prejudices - e.g. stop & search) 
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GENDER: WHY DO WOMEN APPEAR TO OFFEND LESS?

  • SEX ROLE THEORY & GENDER SOCIALISATION - FUNCTIONALIST/NEW RIGHT - women's traditional 'expressive' roles (caring) + responsibilities - adopt 'feminine' characteristics (socialisation) - women avoid risk and have no opportunity for crime
  • HEIDENSON (1996) - FEMINIST + RATION CHOICE/OPPORTUNITY - male/female crime differences = different circumstances, opportunities, socialisation, & formal/informal control. Patriarchal ideology of 'different spheres' (crime in public - male) - respectability & reputation
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GENDER: CHIVALRY THESIS?

  • POLLAK (1950) - male dom CJS = more benevolent/protectivew view of female offending - women = 'less guilty' - vulnerable - treated leniently 

AGAINST C THESIS

  • WALKLATE (2004) - crimes get women imprisoned = less serious than what imprisons men 
  • HEIDENSOHN (1996) - women less likely to commit crime - 'double jeopard' - on trial for crime and deviance from feminine stereotypes - defined by relationships with others 
  • CARLEN (1988) - women's sentences reflect double jeopardy - court influences by assessment of women's performance of tradit roles rather than severity 
  • 'EVIL WOMAN' THEORY - FEMINIST - women promiscious, neglectful, or violent = worse than male counterparts (as seen by CJS) - doubly deviant evil women - men lighter sentences
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GENDER: FEMALE CRIMINALITY

  • ADLER (1975) - 'LIBERATION THESIS' - growing female crime bcos of changing g roles (post 60s feminism) - UK women more independent, successful in school/labour - traditional control weaking - more women (esp young) in public sphere
  • DENSCOMBE (2001) - masculinised 'ladette' culture (drinking, gangs, risk, 'hard', peer violence)
  • HEIDENSOHN & SILVESTRI (2012) - evidence - reported increase due to changes in labelling & criminalisation of girl's behaviour - NOT more crime - more serious CJS reaction 
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GENDER: MORE MALE CRIME? MASCULINITY THESIS

  • PARSONS - FUNCTIONALIST - SEX-ROLE THEORY - 'instrumental role' - traditional role as emplyed + lack of home responsiblity + no constraints that encourage women's conformity = more opportunity for crime (CONTROL THEORY & PUBLIC SPHERE/REPUTATION)
  • CONELL (1987,2005) - hegenomic masculinity - not accomplished = 'wimps'
  • MESSERSCHMIDT (1993) - men use crime/violence to assert masculinity when legitimate means = blocked - alternative 'masculinity-validating resources' - impacts w/c most, but may cause corporate/white collar crime 
  • LYNG - 'edgework'/'thrills & spills' - may express masculinity  
  • LABELLING THEORY - police stereotypes - men labelled criminal - arrested more etc
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SOCIAL CLASS & CRIME

  • NEWBURN (2007) - c & d sociol focued on crimes of powerless over powerful - offical stats 
  • SUTHERLAND (1949) - first sought to show widespread crime - intro ideas of white collar/corporate crime (undetected, unreported, unlabelled - crime stats misleading)
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SOCIAL CLASS: WHITE-COLLAR & CORPORATE CRIME

  • TIMMER & EITZEN (1989) - m/c corp/wc crime = 'crime in the suites' comp to 'crime in the streets' (more familiar/every day)
  • PEARCE (1976) - 'crimes of the powerful'
  • CROALL (2007) - distinction between white collar (occupational crime - individual) and (SLAPPER & TOMBS (1999) - corporate crime (organisational crime - corp)
  • SLAPPER & TOMBS (1999) - 6 types corporate crime - paperwork/non-compliance (permits & health/safety), enviromental crimes, manufacturing offences, labour law violations, unfair trade practises, financial offences 
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SOCIAL CLASS: UNDER REP OF CORP/WH C CRIME IN STAT

  • CLARKE (1990) & CROALL (2001) - offeneces invisible - offenders justified being at scene of crime/appear to be doing normal jobs - corporate coverups = never discovered or after damage
    • CROALL (2007) - less 'blood on the streets' - victims appear impersonal, e.g. company, gov, NHS, public at large. Victims may lack expertise to know they are being victimised - pollution, food, false descriptions, scams, fraud, small losses.
    • CLARKE (1990) - 'complaintless crimes' no individ to report
  • BOX (1981) - corporate crimes use 'mystification' - convince politicians/media/public that crimes less harmful - most corp/wh c unreported - statistical bias
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SOCIAL CLASS: EXPLANATIONS FOR WHITE C/CORP CRIME

  • RELATIVE DEPRIVATION - compared to others, greed and power
  • CONTROL THEORY - individuals socialised into conformity to self seeking aggressive management culture - reduced moral controls 
  • NELKEN (2012) - strain + control theories converge re white collar crime - rich people - material goods associated - financial difficulties maintaining - held to expectations of social group they use illegitimate means to retain. 
    • LABELLING THEORY - offences not labelled 'criminal' - similar to normal business
    • corps use lawyers/accountances to use techniques of neutralisation - redefine crimes as not delibrate law breaking (no labelling = less risk = more crime)
    • world of high finace = subculture - young men in fast lane, high risk important (edgework)
  • SUTHERLAND (1949) - DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION - associate with others who comonly commit crime - more likely to themselves for personal gain (white collar) or corporate (corporate) - aggressive management cultures
  • BOX (1983), SLAPPER & TOMBS (1999) - MARXIST - corporate crime from criminogenic capitalism - global profits not maintained legally, illegal means used
  • KATZ (1988), LYNG (1990, 2005) - POSTMOD - crime seductive/pleasurable - edgework  - thrill seeking ((masculinity))
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GLOBALISATION: GLOBAL CRIME

  • CASTELLS (2010), KAROFI & MWANZA (2006) - globalisation = global criminal economy - new opportunities & types - illegal trade, human trafficking, child sex tourism, cybercrime, gree crimes, international terrorism
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GLOBALISATION: MONEY LAUNDERING

  •  CASTELLS - 'matrix of global crime' - criminals deal with large sums - 'launder' to avoid suspicion - dereg of global finance, banking secrecy, modern ICT - launder dirty money through conmplex transactions - electronic movement (bitcoin) - hard to track
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GLOBALISATION: TRANSNATIONAL ORGANISED CRIME

  • CASTELLS - globalisation created transnational networks of organised crime - employ millions, in collusion with state officals and legit businesses - increasing internatioinal links between groups - deterritorised 
  • FARR (2005) - 2 main forms of global crime networks: established mafias & newer organised crime groups
  • GLENNY (2009) - 'McMafia'- transnat organised crime mirrors activities of legal transnat - produce/sell globally - self interested economic orgs - produce illegal products instead of food
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GLOBALISATION: GLOCALISM OF CRIME

  • HOBBS & DUNNINGHAM (1998) - global criminal networks - in local contexts - independent units - e.g. drugs trade requires local networks of dealers - existing local criminals need to connect with global to continue, e.g get drugs
  • HOBBS (1998) - term 'glocal' - 'transnational' rooted in glocalities - means organisation/crimes shaped by cultural, political, & economic circumstances globally & locally 
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GLOBALISATION: AFFECTS ON CRIME

  • LASH & URRY (1987) - globalisation accompanied by less regulation/state controls over business & finance - 'disorganised capitalism' - 
  • TAYLOR (1997,99) - few job opportunities/unstable & part time - exploitation of labour force in developing world - reduction of state provision - undermines social cohesion - overall fuel crime (alternative means). 
    • individualism = left to rationalise actions rewards - gain above community - crime provides alternative achieving rewards 
  • 1997 - winners of globalisation = rich financial investers/transnat corps in developed western
  • YOUNG - LEFT REALIST - 'bulimic society' encourages internat drug trade/human trafficking - people turn to crime
  • BAUMAN (2000) - individualism in late modernity - improvement reries on individual - no welfare state protection 
  • BECK (1992) - globalisation = 'global risk society' - more 'risk conscious' - fear of losing jobs, crime, etc - sources untracible - moral panics 
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: DEFINITIONS, GLOBALISATION, PERPS/VIC

  • WOLF (2011) - 'green crime' - tradit criminology = when law re enviroment broken - some harmful action illegal 1 place, legal another 
    • 4 GROUPS OF PERPETRATORS: individuals, private businesses, states (SANTANA (2002) - military), organised crime
  • WHITE (2008) - ENVIROMENTAL JUSTICE APPROACH - green crime = any human action that harms enviromental harm - incl people, animals, plants
  • BECK (1992) - past enviromental disasters = natural - new risks caused by humans/science - part of 'global risk society' 
  • POTTER (2010) - class divisions reinforced by enviromental harms - least powerful (w/c, poc) most likely victims - 'enviromental racism' (WHITE (2003) - developing world)
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GREEN CRIME: ENFORCEMENT, EXPLANATIONS, & RESEARCH

  • SNIDER (1991) - MARXIST -  states reluctant to pass laws - will only do so if public pressure - will weaken when possible, enforce weakly/carefully - avoid threatening profits, employment, investors
  • SUTHERLAND (1949) - like other wh.c/corp crimes - not same stigma - rich corps = power to avoid labelling as criminal - not enforced, or only by fines not conviction 
  • WOLF - poor countries may not have resources, political will, or power to enforce restrictions
    • green crime = same motivations as others - g crime pays, less stigma, weaker sanctions
    • different difinitions of g crime = problems in measurement, monitoring, reporting - few  reliable/standardised data sources. case studies = limited ability to explain/make generalisations 
  • WHITE (2008) - transnat corps = anthropocentric - see well-being/economic development of citizens most important - enviroment secondary 
    • 'eco-global criminology'
    • lack of definition = 'depends on who is defining the harm...what criteria...assessing nature of activities'
  • PEARCE (1976) - MARXIST - 'crimes of the powerful' - from criminogenic capitalism - minimise costs/max profits mlbv 
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HUMAN RIGHTS & STATE CRIME

  • GREEN & WARD (2004) - 'state organisational deviance involving the violation of human rights' - human rights framework = global social norms - at least pay lip service too
    • Two man explanations: integrated theory (sim to other crimes), & crimes of obedience model
  • SCHWENDINGER & SCHWENDINGER (19750 (& GREEN & WARD) - human rights = basic social/economic rights + civil & political rights
  • KELMAN & HAMILTON (1989) - violent states encourage obedience from individ perps even when personally regarded as immoral. 3 methods: authorisation (clear acting re offical policy), dehumanisation (monolithic ID), routinisation (detached - DE SWANN (2001) - enclaves of barbarism') 
  • COHEN (2001) - APPLYING SYKES & MATZA (1957) - techniques of neutralisation - how states deny breaches of human rights - relabelling, or excusing as regrettable/justifiable 
    • difficult to find out true extent to research - above - powerful perps, armoury of agencies to cover up - 'dark figure'
  • TOMBS & WAYTE (2003) - researchers face offical resistance - threats, refusal of funding, denying access to documents
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MEDIA: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF CRIME

  • GREER & REINER (2012) - news/docs/fiction - stories of sexual/violent crime = excities/captures public imagination - exploited for 'good story'  - sensationalising/over-reporting out of actual context (filtered through news values) - GREER (2005) - why mainstream media exaggerates violence/minor celeb crime
    • backwards law shown: overrep of violent/sexual/drug crime - under rep of common property - portraying property crime as more violent - over-exaggerating police effectiveness - exagerating risks to m/c white, older, women/children - emphasising individual incidents over understanding of patterns
  • SURETTE (2010) - 'backwards law' - media creates image of c&d which is opposite to reality
  • BAUDRILLARD (2001) - POSTMOD - hyperreality - most knowledge via media
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MEDIA: SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF CRIME

  • GREER & REINER (2012) - news/docs/fiction - stories of sexual/violent crime = excities/captures public imagination - exploited for 'good story'  - sensationalising/over-reporting out of actual context (filtered through news values) - GREER (2005) - why mainstream media exaggerates violence/minor celeb crime
    • backwards law shown: overrep of violent/sexual/drug crime - under rep of common property - portraying property crime as more violent - over-exaggerating police effectiveness - exagerating risks to m/c white, older, women/children - emphasising individual incidents over understanding of patterns
  • SURETTE (2010) - 'backwards law' - media creates image of c&d which is opposite to reality
  • BAUDRILLARD (2001) - POSTMOD - hyperreality - most knowledge via media
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MEDIA: RELEVANCY OF MORAL PANICS & MEDIA GEN VIOLE

  • MCROBBIE & THORNTON (1995) - concept of moral panic no longer useful - outdated bcos new media - sophisication of audience, rolling news, competition - changed reporting/reaction to what would have caused panics before
  • HUNT (2003) - boundaries between moral & immoral blurred
  • BECK (2012) - LATE MODERNIST - in 'risk society' so many risks that mant things that would have caused panics are 'normal' - too vague to describe sit where daily life marked by crisis - 'crime consciousness' everyday
  • STEVE HALL (2012) - CRITICAL THEORIST - whole concept unfounded - headlines re 'grinding selfishness and anti-social behaviour of numerous groups' = real sense of exasperation but no moral panics - public concern generated to be soothed by media to increase faith in gov system (complacency oposite of panic) - legitimnate concerns - real harm to victims - liberal sociologists blame moral panics to avoid supporting greater state repression - 'zombie concept' 
  • GREEK & REINER (2012) - history of PEARSON (1983)'s 'respectable fears' re media gen crime - labelling/moral entrep/deviancy amp, create motives, learning of criminal techniques, new means, reduction of social controls, providing targets, 
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CJS: CHANGING APPROACHES

  • GARLAND (2001) - most 20th century - focus on rehabilitation - since 70s - growth retributive justice 
    • changes reflect in sociol theory - shift from LEFT REALIST (causes rooted in inequality) to RIGHT REALIST (focus on consequences - more social control - harsher punishment - reduce ops - reduce public harm)
    • 'culture of control' - controlling/preventing/reducing victimhood over rehab
  • NEWBURN (2007) - 'just deserts' - no prisons 2x as in 70s - more political rhetoric re protection via control/supervising - penalties (imprisonment, parole, probation, offenders registers) - high imprisonment + uncertainty of expensive punishment = believe rehabil works
  • CRAWFOARD & EVANS (2012) - since 80s - emphasis on crime reduction - priority to prevention over retribution/rehab - recognition cj concerned with victim rights/needs
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CJS: RESTORATIVE JUSTICE & ROLE OF PUNISHMENT

  • BRAITHWAITE (1999) - restorative j = most effective with 'reintegrative shaming' - face victims, 'named & shamed' - realise extent of societal disaproval - shame into conforming - responsibility for consequences 
  • POSTMOD - growing detachment from centralised control to informal localised - account of different lifestyles
  • NEWBURN (2007) - main reasons for punishment: discourage reoffending/deter others (rehab/deterrence), force to make amends (restorative), protect society from danger, reinforce social values (funct), punish deservingly ('just deserts')
    • 'disciplinary society', 'age of panopticism', 'surveillance society 
  • FOUCAULT (1991) - POSTMOD - sovereign power to discipline power - public brutal punishments demonstrated s power, now surveillance/control demo disciplinary power 
    • shift illustrated via panotician - prisoners never sure when being watched = self-serveillance, self-discipline, self control - internalised - extends into all contemporary society
  • RUSCHE & KIRCHHWIMER (1939) - MARXIST - punishment = social control & class domination - changing forms arise from changing dom class economic interest (brutality = labour plentiful,, decline when not)
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CJS: SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO PUNISHMENT

FUNCTIONALIST 

  • DURKHEIM - value consense & collective consciousness - regulates behaviour - laws expression of c consciousness - break laws, break it - retribution: outlet for public anger (break of cc)/disaproval, reasserts moral boundaries & order, reaffirms collective values & laws, social soildarity.social cohesion 

MARXIST (laws = r/c ideol)

  • ALTHUSSER (1971) - punishment - 'repressive state apparatus' - physical meams of keeping pop in place via cjs
  • RUSCHE & KIRCHHEIMER - mechanisms of social control - reinforce r/c power - unequal distribution of power reflected in unequal distribution of punishment/criminalisation of acts - CJA overwhelmingly/systematically against most disadvantaged - more severe punished

WEBERIAN APPROACH 

  • WEBER - mod soc = process of rationalisation -only state has power to punish - 'legal-rational authority' - punishment re impersonal rules, complex bureaucracies -  democratic soc = legitimate & justifiable, pubic view - CJS highly managed process (vary type/location)
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CJS: IMPRISONMENT PREVENT CRIME?

  • RIGHT REALIST - prison key to deterrence + increased risk 
  • BOORMAN & HOPKINS (2012) - evidence re-offenders ex-cons = chaotic childhoods - experienced/witnessed abuse/violence, or in care - unemployed, accomdation problems, mental illness 
  • GOFFMAN (1961) - INTERACTIONIST - prison = own subcultures - training for criminals/confirm label (think 'universities of crime') 
  • BECKER (1963) - 'criminal' = 'master status' - difficult to re-enter society/increased liklihood of reoffending 
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SURVEILLANCE & CRIME CONTROL/PREVENTION

  • FOUCAULT (1991) - surveillance = key means monitoring/controling/changing criminals' behaviour - disciplinary power - panopticion model - across many institutions - 'age of panopticism - surveillance tech ('technologies of power'/'disciplinary technologies') = state exercise dis power via surveillence over whole pop
    • Contemporary society = 'carceral archipelago' - public location = small panopticon 
    • society = carceral culture - panoptic model spread - watched by powerful ('judges of normality') - to impose conformist behaviour via self discipline - prevent threat to social order
  • LYON (2009) - 'focused attention to personal details for the purposes of influence, management, or control' - made easier by ICT - addition to suspects 'oridnary persons...find their personal data of interest to others' - less private - inescapable in tech - 'surveillance societies'
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THEORETICAL APP/POLICIES: LEFT REALISM

  • KINSEY ET AL (1986) - police need - improve clear up rates - more time investigating = deter offenders & restore confidence - lack of confidence leads to military techniques in deprived areas - counterproductive - increased antagonism 
  • LEWIS ET AL (2011) - 2011 riots
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RIGHT REALISM POLICY THEORIES

ENVIROMENTAL CRIME PREVENTION 

  • WILSON (1971), WILSON & KELLING (1982) - 'broken window thesis' - not repaired (disorder, lack of com concern) - further neglect follows
    • WILSON - 'incivilities' kept to min OR gradual deterrioration of area - 'anything goes' - anti-social crimes grows to serious crime - necessary to keep enviroment in good condition - zero tolerance policing 
  • BOTTOM (1976) - tipping - areas of city noticibly going downhill, respectable leave, freinds/family of problem families move in

ROUTINE ACTIVITY THEORY 

  • FELSON & CLARKE (1998) - crime part of every day routine when 3 conditions present: suitable target, no 'capable guardian', offender present things 1&2 are met and makes rational choice 

RATIONAL CHOICE/OPPORTUNITY THEORIES

  • CORNISH & CLARKE (1986) 
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RIGHT REALIST - SCP

SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION (SCP) 

  • CLARKE (1992) - SCP = preventing crime in locations over catching offenders - crime less appealing - not improvementy of soc or harsher punishments
  • PEASE (2002) - 'bars, bolts, & barriers'
  • CORNISH & CLARKE (2003) - notices warning of surveillance/rules removes excuses + self regulation - or face arrests, fines, dispersal order
  • FELSON & CLARKE (1998) - pos effects outside immediate location - may believe measures in place everywhere even if untrue
  • BOWERS ET AL (2011) - review of 44 internat studies re targetted policing - SCP = 'diffusion of benefits' (prefer familar enviro - do not move - find legit means, uncertainty of police scope)

CRITCISMS

  • CRAWFORD & EVANS (2012) - SCP + unequal soc = increase inequality - more affluent living in target hardened communities - poorer can't afford (affluent immune, poor more vulnerable) - hostile architecture targets poor, limits use of public space
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RIGHT REALIST - SOCIAL CONTROL

  • HIRSCHI'S CONTROL THEORY 
  • Tighter community control/socialisation - pressure deviants - IDing 'at risk' backgrounds - parental responsibility, crack down on anti s behavour, supervision of offenders, zero tolerence policing, heavier policing, fast track punishment 

CRITICISM

  • LABELLING - criminal records for minor offences - negative labelling 
  • LEWIS ET AL (2011) - 2011 riots
  • LYING & KATZ - edgework - not rational choice 
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FEMINISM & CRIME PREVENTION/CONTROL

  • NEWBURN (2007) - feminist solutions incl: making ignored victimisation (domestic/sexual violence, harrassment) visible, exposing extent violence against women = men's violence, recognise sexual violence by males to females = male power not sex, show patriarchal CJS (holds stereotypes, failed responses), ID CJS features lead to further victimisation
    • police - need specialist training for ****/dom violence - more reported/prosecuted - can't get away with it 
  • WALKLATE (2004) - CJS further victimise women in **** trials - female victim on trial - reputation scrutinised - embarassing/invasive questioning

LIBERAL FEMINISTS - improve circumstances - encourage reporting (victim&police) - **** crisis centres, '**** walks' - men need resocialisation - don't need to assert power via violence

MARXIST FEMINISTS - inequality hardest impact on wc women - 'female crimes' - economic necessity - tackle social inequality

RADICAL FEMINISTS - -focus crimes again w - women turn to crime bcos of patriarchal responsiblity - managing limited budgets

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POSTMODERNISM & CRIME PREVENTION/CONTROL

  • LEA (1998) - CJS need to recognose diversity of social groups - respect IDs/choices - ethnic IDs, gender IDs, diversity of sexual relations 
  • fragmented structures = informal, localised arrangements (replacement of centrally managed CJS) - increased private agencies/surveillence tech - customisable - control entry to areas
  • complex individual motives = individualised justice - alternatives to prosecution if suitable - recognose economic conditions, inadequate welfare, homelessness, mental illness 
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POSTMODERNISM & CRIME PREVENTION/CONTROL

  • LEA (1998) - CJS need to recognose diversity of social groups - respect IDs/choices - ethnic IDs, gender IDs, diversity of sexual relations 
  • fragmented structures = informal, localised arrangements (replacement of centrally managed CJS) - increased private agencies/surveillence tech - customisable - control entry to areas
  • complex individual motives = individualised justice - alternatives to prosecution if suitable - recognose economic conditions, inadequate welfare, homelessness, mental illness 
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VICTIMS: CONSTRUCTION/EFFECTS OF VICTIMISATION

  • TOMBS & WHYTE (2007) - accidental victims of corp crime from employer neglecting health and safety blamed for negligence themselves
  • HOYLE (2012) - range of effects of victimisation other than physical/financial harm: anger, anxiety, depression, withdrawal, panic attacks, shock, PTSD, disrupted sleep, poor health, powerlessness, fear of repreat victimisation - depending on crime/victim characteristics 
  • CSEW - high levels of worry re crime in victimised - security industry developed round fear 
  • RESTRICTIONS OVER MOVEMENT, FEAR OF REPEAT, & COMMUNITY FEAR 
  • SECONDARY/PRIMARY VICTIMISATION 
  • WALKLATE (2004) - secondary victimisation in female **** victims via CJS 
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VICTIMS: GENDER

  • WALKLATE (2004) - police beginning to take ****/dom v more seriously - specialist units 
  • **** STEREOTYPE - when confronted by familiar attacker, contradicts CJS stereotype of deviant stranger, (84% know perp, 30% in public, 70% @ home) - leads to doubts over consent - victim blamed/mistrusted
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VICTIMS: EXPLANATIONS

POSITIVISM VICTIMOLOGY  

  • TIERNEY (1996) - IDing characteristic/circumstance in victims that make them differ from non-vic: VICTIM PRONESS - characteristics of individ/groups that make them more vulnerable; VICTIM PRECIPITATION - suggests victims involved/to blame for victimsation (e.g. dress, unlocked doors, etc) 

RADICAL/CRITICAL VICTIMOLOGY 

  • CONFLICT THEORIES - wider social issues/circumstance which produces victimsation, e.g. social deprivation, patriarchy, racist police force/under protection
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