Crime and Deviance: Paper 3 Section B

Victim Surveys

  • The Islington Crime Survey: 
    • 1/3 households had been affected by serious crime un the past 12 months
    • More than half of women stated that fear of crime meant they didn't go out often
    • 46% admitted to worrying a lot about being mugged
    • 40% knew someone who had been mugged in the past 12 months
    • 1/4 of all people avoided going out after dark
    • 28% felt unsafe in their own home
  • Young (1988) critisices victim surveys because he argues they have a dark figure of crime in them and the accuracy of them relies on memory
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Self-report studies

  • Campbell (1981) = found that by looking at crimes between men and women, they are now more equal, and the massive gap that police recorded statisitcs suggest is no longer prevalant; male crime is overrepresented
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Social class - offending

  • Sutherland (1949) = found that those in the lower classes are more likely to be involved in crime, both as perpetrators and victims
  • 2002 Social Exclusion Unit report = found that;
    • Many prisoners have a history of social exclusion 
    • Unemployment of 5% compared to 67% of those in prison 
    • Homelessness of 0.9% compared to 32% of those in prison
  • Williams et al (2012) = the most common in prison population
    • Run away from home
    • Experienced violence
    • Drug/alcohol misuse
    • No qualifications
  • Cavadino and Dignan (2001) = found that there is class bias in the CJS as you are more likely to get off with a crime when you're from the upper/middle class. Also states that there is a difference in the type of crime - "lower class crime"
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Social class - victimisation

  • British Crime Survey (2010-11) = found that;
    • Young adults, lone parents and unemployed are twice as likely to be burgled
    • Unemployed also twice as likely to be victims of violence 
  • Kinsey (Merseyside Crime Survey 1984) = looked at specific areas of crime and concluded that the poor are more likely to suffer from the effects of crime and are also more likely to experience "multiple victimisation" 
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Gender - offending

  • Police recorded crime and MOJ statistics;
    • Males commit 80% of offenses
    • Females account for 18% of arrests and 25% of convictions in 2013
    • Prison population = 83,433. Men = 79,578, women = 3,855
    • Peak age for offending; men = 18, women = 15
  • Gender intersects with social class 
  • Graham and Bowling = argues there is a "chivalry thesis" in the CJS, where women are treated more leniently
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Gender - victimisation

  • Young (1988) = the meaning of a punch differs depending on the situation and the power of the relationship involved
  • Hammer and Saunders (1984) = found that 20% of the women in Leeds had been sexually assaulted and had not reported it
  • Stanko (2000) = found that over one 24hr period, a case of domestic violence occurs every second, yet very few lead to an arrest
  • Walklate (2006) = looked into why women remain in abusive relationships, and found that;
    • They are unable to leave 
    • They have no where to go 
    • Children involved
    • Lack economic independence 
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Age - offending

  • 23% of recorded crime between 10-17 age group - DISPROPORTIONATE BECAUSE THEY ONLY TAKE UP 1 IN 10 OF THE POPULATION 
  • Age of criminal responsbility = 10 years old 
  • McVie (2004) = argues there is a "data masking reality" because when ages are grouped together, it can mask precise findings and repeat offenders have a marked impact 
  • Moral panic = when the media amplify an event of deviancy which causes the public to panic 
  • Howard Becker (1963) = labelling theory (youth deviancy, deviancy amplification, master status and self-fulfilling prophecy), Stan Cohen's study and Jock Young (1971)
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Age - victimisation

  • Young (1988) = argues you have to consider victimisation with other factors because there is an intersect between age, class and gender
  • Age is disproportionate to the fear of crime - elderly have a fear of crime when the young are more likely victims 
  • The Islington Crime Survey; 
    • Young white females are 29 times more likely to be assaulted than those 45+
    • The most most dangerous age for white women = 25-44, 45+ for black women
  • CSEW;
    • Since Jan 2009, asked kids aged 10-15 about their experiences of crime and by June 2014, 12% were victims and the majority were of violent crime 
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Ethnicity - offending

  • Black people; 
    • Population = 3.1%
    • Stop and search = 14.2% and 9 times more likely to be stopped an searched
    • Arrests = 3 times more likely than white people in 2010
  • Asian;
    • Population = 6.4%
    • Stop and search = 10.3%
  • Bowling and Phillips (2006) = argues the CPS is more likely to drop cases put forward by the police including black suspects due to insufficient evidence 
  • Ministry of Justice (2014) = the number of Muslims in prison has doubled to 12 000 in the past 10 years - why?
    • Islamaphobia = disproportionate
    • Increase in Muslim population therefore increase in prison population?
    • Moral panics = after Ariana Grande concert, there was a 500% rise in Muslim hate crime
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Ethnicity - victimisation

  • CSEW (2012/13) = shows that adults from mixed race were more liekly to be victims of personal crime than white adults 
  • Home Office (2005) = found that;
    • Black people were 5 times more likely to be murdered than their white counterparts
    • Black people take up 1 in 3 gun crimes, both as victims and suspects 
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Global organised crime

  • Franko Aas (2007) = defines global crime as the cross border activities of organsied crime groups, exploiting and increasing global interconnectedness
  • Convention of Transnational Organised crime = defines organised criminal groups as a structured group who have the aim of committing one or more serious crimes in order to obtain a financial or material gain
  • Statistics;
    • Smuggling of migrants from Latin America worth $6.6 bn
    • Smuggling of migrants from Africa worth $150 m
    • Heroin from Afghanistan to Russia worth $13 bn 
  • Peter Gastrow (2013) = argues organised crime has popular perceptions such as the maffia, but is no longer what it is stereotyped to be
  • Castells (2000) = sees organised crime as resembling business networks in the same way of a "network society" - power now rests within networks and global organised groups rely on this
  • Robertson (1995) = talks about Glocalisation and the ways it differs in political, cultural and law context
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Green crime

  • Franko Aas (2007) = states that, like organised crime, green crime demonstrates the intersection of the local and the global. For example, littering is a local issue, but becomes global issue - festivals. Alos argues that the local environment is often harmed, which is then a produt of a chain geographically dispersed event/activity 
  • Marxism = argues that the Proletariat get punished more for street crime than the Bourgeoisie do for green crime
  • Potter (2010) = talks about food riots and how we used to produce food as a globe, but now we focus on agricultural production: cotton and biofuels. Also states the poor are most likely to suffer from environmental crime as the price of food and fuel is increasing
  • Carrabine et al (2014) = discusses the idea of primary green crimes and secondary green crimes. Primary;
    • Crimes which directly harm the environment
    • Air Pollution, water pollution, deforestation, species decline
  • Secondary;
    • The actions that are commited as a response to primary green crime - to cover up
    • State violence against environmental groups and protests 
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Functionalism and crime

  • Erikson (1966) - 'Wayward Puritans' =  sees that society’s boundaries are constantly changing/shifting; degradation used to happen in the form of public hangings, but now takes form within the media. Further argues that this change demonstrates a change in society, as well as the changes within deviancy – homosexuality
  • Emile Durkheim - a little crime is beneficial to society because;
    •   Reaffirms social boundaries - improved security after terrorist attack 
    • Keeps society up to date with changing values - value of family 
    • Creates social cohesion - people of Manchester brought together 
    • Further argues that a little bit of crime is necessary because it prevents anomie 
  • Davis (1961) = argues that we use deviance as a “safety valve” which is beneficial as it reduces overall crime. Used the example of prostitution as he argues that this little crime is good for society because it prevents the bigger crime of ****/sexual assault, as well as keeping family ties strong in replacement of cheating
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Strain Theory and crime

  • Robert Merton (1938) = looks at why crime is occurring and states that people commit crime because they experience a strain between socially approved goals and the socially accepted ways of achieving them
  • The 5 modes of adaption (reactions to strain); 
    • Innovation *
    • Retreatism *
    • Ritualism 
    • Rebellion *
    • Conformity 
  • The most deviant = *
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Subcultural theory and crime

  • Albert Cohen (1955) = states that young people fail to reach society’s goals and experience “status frustration” as they try to look for a solution. Because of this, they see society’s goals as unworthy and so turn to crime in which they get an “inverted status”
  • Cloward and Ohlin (1961) = argues that everyone wants the same goals but just can’t achieve them as they experience “blocked opportunities.” Also discusses the idea of “illegitimate opportunity structure” – don’t have the same opportunity structure so they turn to crime. Also identifies the different types of deviant subculture; criminal, conflict (frustration shown through violence) and retreatism (retreats into drug abuse)
  • P. Cohen (1972) = argues the working class are deviant because of contradictions within the parent culture – there is a link between the rise of subculture and youth deviance which acts as a protest to their class situation
  • Miller (1958) =  argues the lower class are socialised into deviant subcultural values which are called “focal concerns” which are extensions of normal norms and values. These are “learned cultural values” and further argues that there aren’t deviant subcultures, but an extension of normal values
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Subcultural theory and crime

Winlow (2001) = 

  • Criminality in the modern era – lower classes turn to violence because they are denied access to a criminal career
  • Criminality in the postmodern era – lower classes find new directions because traditional structures have disappeared
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Cultural Criminology and crime

  • Ferrel (1999) = cultural criminology is the study of postmodern society and subcultures with the argument that it is an expression of identity and is a power struggle. Ferrell argues that it stresses the “energy of everyday life” and states that crime is a result of anger – it’s not a decision
  • Katz (2005) =  states that, as a society, we used to focus on crime by looking at age, ethnicity and class. Katz sees this as outdated and ineffective, further arguing that we must look at why people are drawn to crime – the “seduction of crime” – and when we discover what is so attractive, crime can be prevented
  • Lyng (2005) = argues that people take part in crime to test society’s boundaries – “edgework” = criminality is the edge of boundaries and states that if one can master intense feelings, you get a strong feeling of accomplishment
  • Jock Young (2003) =  argues that working-class deviance is due to feelings of anger and frustration. States that we live in a “bulimic society” in which we are encouraged to worship and to achieve society's goals. However, the working class are excluded from achieving these goals and so they turn to crime. The working class feel the most “intensity of exclusion” DEVIANCE IS A PRODUCT OF THE DESIRE TO BE INCLUDED
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Cultural Criminology and crime

  • Presdee (2002) = “the carnival of crime” – a carnival is a way of celebrating deviance, meaning deviance occurs because of carnivals. However, when they are not controlled, they outcome in criminality. UK culture of binge drinking on the weekends
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Interactionism and crime

  • Edwin Lemert (1951) = talks about primary and secondary deviance. Primary deviance defines crime which isn’t publicly labelled – low level crime. However, when a self-fulfilling prophecy occurs, primary crime turns into secondary crime. This defines the process of a self fulfilling prophecy which leads to deviancy amplification/a deviant career
  • Malinowki (1996) = studied the way of life of a small tribe and found that although incest was seen as deviant, it was an everyday occurrence. Through this, he concluded that one is only labelled when a public accusation occurs
  • Matza (1964) = talks about subterranean values (similar to Miller’s focal concerns) = argues youths drift in and out of deviance by taking part in subterranean values which is fine as long as it’s managed. Also argues that there are 5 types of neutralisation;
    • Denial of responsibility
    • Denial of injury
    • Denial of the victim
    • Condemnation of the condemners – individual feels they are being labelled
    • Appeal to higher loyalties
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Interactionism and crime

  • Howard Becker (1966) = argues deviance is socially constructed – deviance is part of a process which makes, those who are labelled as deviant, outsiders – this rejection turns them to crime and can also lead to them having a deviant career
  • Jock Young (1971) = talks about deviancy amplification and defines it as when someone goes through the processes of the self-fulfilling prophecy, their deviancy becomes worse and as a result they may have a deviant career. For example, Stan Cohen’s study on the Mods and Rockers
  • Cicourel (1968) = influenced by the ideas of Lemert but further argues that police recorded crime statistics are the result of a series of interactions between the CJS and the police which make judgement of pre-conceived ideas – a decision of arrest is purely based on the police’s judgement of the suspect. This concludes that agencies of control construct the official picture of juvenile justice
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Marxism and crime

  • Karl Marx:
    • Capitalism is criminogenic – this means it encourages and creates criminals of all classes; relative deprivation, Strain Theory, etc
    • The Law only serves the interest of the Bourgeoise – only working classes being punished. Snider (1993) – capitalist system reluctant to pass laws that regulate business
    • Laws and criminals perform an ideological function for capitalism – ideas of Gramsci and Julliete Garside (2014) – brainwashing and ideological control
  • Althusser (1970) =  talks about RSA (Repressive State Apparatus) – the use of physical; forces to maintain capitalism – London Riots (2011) = the police. Also talks about ISA (Ideological State Apparatus) – the subliminal control of ideas – secondary agents of control 
  • Steven Box (1983) =  talks about “avoidable killing” – the concept of different labels for the classes – corporate murder and proletariat murder. He directly links crime to social control and argues official crime statistics are manipulated to criminalise the powerless and to scare and justify more capitalist control and policing creating a culture of fear. Also states that the powerful create more harm to society with their crime than the “criminal classes”
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Marxism and crime

  • Gordon (1973) =  sees there being a big focus on the public fear of proletariat crime with none on white collar crime even though it creates more harm. 91% of Americans have admitted to doing things which receive criminal sentences – CRIME IS A REACTION TO CAPITALISM
  • Chambliss (1975) =  poverty + desire to consume = crime. Also sees that there is universal capitalism in the CJS as prisons benefit capitalism because of the cheap labour. Also says that there is selective enforcement = working classes in prison
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White Collar Crime


    • Occupational = crimes by the employee; stealing stationary from workplace
    • Corporate = crimes by the business; Amazon tax evasion
    • State = crime by the government; trafficking
  • Marxism on White Collar Crime;
    • Gordon (1973) = little to no focus on white collar crime, even though it causes more damage – crime is a rational response to capitalism
    • Chambliss (1975) = argues crime manifests from the desire to consume
    • Box (1983) = the powerful are creating more harm to society with white collar
  • ACFE (2010) =  personality based approach = crime is based on the individual’s personality – white collar crime = greedy personality. ACFE argue that white collar criminals are white middle-class men who are loners with addiction issues
  • Sutherland and Cressey (1955) =  differential association = crime has become a cultural norm in which workplace crime has become normal – this means that white collar crime isn’t deemed as deviant, which is why it occurs
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Neo-Marxism/Radical Criminology and crime

  • Chambliss (1973) = study on the “Saints” and the “Roughnecks” – two gangs involved in deviant behaviour but are treated differently because they’re from different classes. The Saints were not labelled by the police, however the Roughnecks were and were treated as criminals. Because working class groups are seen as troublesome, society assumes they’re going to be deviant and therefore look for deviance there, not in the Saints. This shows labelling not only comes from the CJS, but society
  • The CCCS = argues that young people take part in subcultures (deviant/criminal) because of feelings of deprivation and as a means of resistance against the ruling class – e.g Punks and Skinheads – going against the mainstreams of dominant ideology 
  • Stuart Hall = the “Black Mugger” – the term “mugging” doesn’t exist in police recorded crime statistics, it’s instead referred to as robbery. The term came from America in the 1970’s and was used by the media only, but only when the perpetrator was black. This created a moral panic surrounding “black mugging” – “black criminality” and created a link between race and crime 
  • Taylor, Walton and Young (1972) = talks about the “new criminology” = a new, radical approach which looks at the capitalist system we are in and the smaller institutions in society. Argues that crime can be explained within the circumstance, meaning and effect of the individual 
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