Crime and Deviance: Paper 3 Section B


Victim Surveys

  • The Islington Crime Survey: 
    • 1/3 households had been affected by serious crime un the past 12 months
    • More than half of women stated that fear of crime meant they didn't go out often
    • 46% admitted to worrying a lot about being mugged
    • 40% knew someone who had been mugged in the past 12 months
    • 1/4 of all people avoided going out after dark
    • 28% felt unsafe in their own home
  • Young (1988) critisices victim surveys because he argues they have a dark figure of crime in them and the accuracy of them relies on memory
1 of 39

Self-report studies

  • Campbell (1981) = found that by looking at crimes between men and women, they are now more equal, and the massive gap that police recorded statisitcs suggest is no longer prevalant; male crime is overrepresented
2 of 39

Social class - offending

  • Sutherland (1949) = found that those in the lower classes are more likely to be involved in crime, both as perpetrators and victims
  • 2002 Social Exclusion Unit report = found that;
    • Many prisoners have a history of social exclusion 
    • Unemployment of 5% compared to 67% of those in prison 
    • Homelessness of 0.9% compared to 32% of those in prison
  • Williams et al (2012) = the most common in prison population
    • Run away from home
    • Experienced violence
    • Drug/alcohol misuse
    • No qualifications
  • Cavadino and Dignan (2001) = found that there is class bias in the CJS as you are more likely to get off with a crime when you're from the upper/middle class. Also states that there is a difference in the type of crime - "lower class crime"
3 of 39

Social class - victimisation

  • British Crime Survey (2010-11) = found that;
    • Young adults, lone parents and unemployed are twice as likely to be burgled
    • Unemployed also twice as likely to be victims of violence 
  • Kinsey (Merseyside Crime Survey 1984) = looked at specific areas of crime and concluded that the poor are more likely to suffer from the effects of crime and are also more likely to experience "multiple victimisation" 
4 of 39

Gender - offending

  • Police recorded crime and MOJ statistics;
    • Males commit 80% of offenses
    • Females account for 18% of arrests and 25% of convictions in 2013
    • Prison population = 83,433. Men = 79,578, women = 3,855
    • Peak age for offending; men = 18, women = 15
  • Gender intersects with social class 
  • Graham and Bowling = argues there is a "chivalry thesis" in the CJS, where women are treated more leniently
5 of 39

Gender - victimisation

  • Young (1988) = the meaning of a punch differs depending on the situation and the power of the relationship involved
  • Hammer and Saunders (1984) = found that 20% of the women in Leeds had been sexually assaulted and had not reported it
  • Stanko (2000) = found that over one 24hr period, a case of domestic violence occurs every second, yet very few lead to an arrest
  • Walklate (2006) = looked into why women remain in abusive relationships, and found that;
    • They are unable to leave 
    • They have no where to go 
    • Children involved
    • Lack economic independence 
6 of 39

Age - offending

  • 23% of recorded crime between 10-17 age group - DISPROPORTIONATE BECAUSE THEY ONLY TAKE UP 1 IN 10 OF THE POPULATION 
  • Age of criminal responsbility = 10 years old 
  • McVie (2004) = argues there is a "data masking reality" because when ages are grouped together, it can mask precise findings and repeat offenders have a marked impact 
  • Moral panic = when the media amplify an event of deviancy which causes the public to panic 
  • Howard Becker (1963) = labelling theory (youth deviancy, deviancy amplification, master status and self-fulfilling prophecy), Stan Cohen's study and Jock Young (1971)
7 of 39

Age - victimisation

  • Young (1988) = argues you have to consider victimisation with other factors because there is an intersect between age, class and gender
  • Age is disproportionate to the fear of crime - elderly have a fear of crime when the young are more likely victims 
  • The Islington Crime Survey; 
    • Young white females are 29 times more likely to be assaulted than those 45+
    • The most most dangerous age for white women = 25-44, 45+ for black women
  • CSEW;
    • Since Jan 2009, asked kids aged 10-15 about their experiences of crime and by June 2014, 12% were victims and the majority were of violent crime 
8 of 39

Ethnicity - offending

  • Black people; 
    • Population = 3.1%
    • Stop and search = 14.2% and 9 times more likely to be stopped an searched
    • Arrests = 3 times more likely than white people in 2010
  • Asian;
    • Population = 6.4%
    • Stop and search = 10.3%
  • Bowling and Phillips (2006) = argues the CPS is more likely to drop cases put forward by the police including black suspects due to insufficient evidence 
  • Ministry of Justice (2014) = the number of Muslims in prison has doubled to 12 000 in the past 10 years - why?
    • Islamaphobia = disproportionate
    • Increase in Muslim population therefore increase in prison population?
    • Moral panics = after Ariana Grande concert, there was a 500% rise in Muslim hate crime
9 of 39

Ethnicity - victimisation

  • CSEW (2012/13) = shows that adults from mixed race were more liekly to be victims of personal crime than white adults 
  • Home Office (2005) = found that;
    • Black people were 5 times more likely to be murdered than their white counterparts
    • Black people take up 1 in 3 gun crimes, both as victims and suspects 
10 of 39

Global organised crime

  • Franko Aas (2007) = defines global crime as the cross border activities of organsied crime groups, exploiting and increasing global interconnectedness
  • Convention of Transnational Organised crime = defines organised criminal groups as a structured group who have the aim of committing one or more serious crimes in order to obtain a financial or material gain
  • Statistics;
    • Smuggling of migrants from Latin America worth $6.6 bn
    • Smuggling of migrants from Africa worth $150 m
    • Heroin from Afghanistan to Russia worth $13 bn 
  • Peter Gastrow (2013) = argues organised crime has popular perceptions such as the maffia, but is no longer what it is stereotyped to be
  • Castells (2000) = sees organised crime as resembling business networks in the same way of a "network society" - power now rests within networks and global organised groups rely on this
  • Robertson (1995) = talks about Glocalisation and the ways it differs in political, cultural and law context
11 of 39

Green crime

  • Franko Aas (2007) = states that, like organised crime, green crime demonstrates the intersection of the local and the global. For example, littering is a local issue, but becomes global issue - festivals. Alos argues that the local environment is often harmed, which is then a produt of a chain geographically dispersed event/activity 
  • Marxism = argues that the Proletariat get punished more for street crime than the Bourgeoisie do for green crime
  • Potter (2010) = talks about food riots and how we used to produce food as a globe, but now we focus on agricultural production: cotton and biofuels. Also states the poor are most likely to suffer from environmental crime as the price of food and fuel is increasing
  • Carrabine et al (2014) = discusses the idea of primary green crimes and secondary green crimes. Primary;
    • Crimes which directly harm the environment
    • Air Pollution, water pollution, deforestation, species decline
  • Secondary;
    • The actions that are commited as a response to primary green crime - to cover up
    • State violence against environmental groups and protests 
12 of 39

Functionalism and crime

  • Erikson (1966) - 'Wayward Puritans' =  sees that society’s boundaries are constantly changing/shifting; degradation used to happen in the form of public hangings, but now takes form within the media. Further argues that this change demonstrates a change in society, as well as the changes within deviancy – homosexuality
  • Emile Durkheim - a little crime is beneficial to society because;
    •   Reaffirms social boundaries - improved security after terrorist attack 
    • Keeps society up to date with changing values - value of family 
    • Creates social cohesion - people of Manchester brought together 
    • Further argues that a little bit of crime is necessary because it prevents anomie 
  • Davis (1961) = argues that we use deviance as a “safety valve” which is beneficial as it reduces overall crime. Used the example of prostitution as he argues that this little crime is good for society because it prevents the bigger crime of ****/sexual assault, as well as keeping family ties strong in replacement of cheating
13 of 39

Strain Theory and crime

  • Robert Merton (1938) = looks at why crime is occurring and states that people commit crime because they experience a strain between socially approved goals and the socially accepted ways of achieving them
  • The 5 modes of adaption (reactions to strain); 
    • Innovation *
    • Retreatism *
    • Ritualism 
    • Rebellion *
    • Conformity 
  • The most deviant = *
14 of 39

Subcultural theory and crime

  • Albert Cohen (1955) = states that young people fail to reach society’s goals and experience “status frustration” as they try to look for a solution. Because of this, they see society’s goals as unworthy and so turn to crime in which they get an “inverted status”
  • Cloward and Ohlin (1961) = argues that everyone wants the same goals but just can’t achieve them as they experience “blocked opportunities.” Also discusses the idea of “illegitimate opportunity structure” – don’t have the same opportunity structure so they turn to crime. Also identifies the different types of deviant subculture; criminal, conflict (frustration shown through violence) and retreatism (retreats into drug abuse)
  • P. Cohen (1972) = argues the working class are deviant because of contradictions within the parent culture – there is a link between the rise of subculture and youth deviance which acts as a protest to their class situation
  • Miller (1958) =  argues the lower class are socialised into deviant subcultural values which are called “focal concerns” which are extensions of normal norms and values. These are “learned cultural values” and further argues that there aren’t deviant subcultures, but an extension of normal values
15 of 39

Subcultural theory and crime

Winlow (2001) = 

  • Criminality in the modern era – lower classes turn to violence because they are denied access to a criminal career
  • Criminality in the postmodern era – lower classes find new directions because traditional structures have disappeared
16 of 39

Cultural Criminology and crime

  • Ferrel (1999) = cultural criminology is the study of postmodern society and subcultures with the argument that it is an expression of identity and is a power struggle. Ferrell argues that it stresses the “energy of everyday life” and states that crime is a result of anger – it’s not a decision
  • Katz (2005) =  states that, as a society, we used to focus on crime by looking at age, ethnicity and class. Katz sees this as outdated and ineffective, further arguing that we must look at why people are drawn to crime – the “seduction of crime” – and when we discover what is so attractive, crime can be prevented
  • Lyng (2005) = argues that people take part in crime to test society’s boundaries – “edgework” = criminality is the edge of boundaries and states that if one can master intense feelings, you get a strong feeling of accomplishment
  • Jock Young (2003) =  argues that working-class deviance is due to feelings of anger and frustration. States that we live in a “bulimic society” in which we are encouraged to worship and to achieve society's goals. However, the working class are excluded from achieving these goals and so they turn to crime. The working class feel the most “intensity of exclusion” DEVIANCE IS A PRODUCT OF THE DESIRE TO BE INCLUDED
17 of 39

Cultural Criminology and crime

  • Presdee (2002) = “the carnival of crime” – a carnival is a way of celebrating deviance, meaning deviance occurs because of carnivals. However, when they are not controlled, they outcome in criminality. UK culture of binge drinking on the weekends
18 of 39

Interactionism and crime

  • Edwin Lemert (1951) = talks about primary and secondary deviance. Primary deviance defines crime which isn’t publicly labelled – low level crime. However, when a self-fulfilling prophecy occurs, primary crime turns into secondary crime. This defines the process of a self fulfilling prophecy which leads to deviancy amplification/a deviant career
  • Malinowki (1996) = studied the way of life of a small tribe and found that although incest was seen as deviant, it was an everyday occurrence. Through this, he concluded that one is only labelled when a public accusation occurs
  • Matza (1964) = talks about subterranean values (similar to Miller’s focal concerns) = argues youths drift in and out of deviance by taking part in subterranean values which is fine as long as it’s managed. Also argues that there are 5 types of neutralisation;
    • Denial of responsibility
    • Denial of injury
    • Denial of the victim
    • Condemnation of the condemners – individual feels they are being labelled
    • Appeal to higher loyalties
19 of 39

Interactionism and crime

  • Howard Becker (1966) = argues deviance is socially constructed – deviance is part of a process which makes, those who are labelled as deviant, outsiders – this rejection turns them to crime and can also lead to them having a deviant career
  • Jock Young (1971) = talks about deviancy amplification and defines it as when someone goes through the processes of the self-fulfilling prophecy, their deviancy becomes worse and as a result they may have a deviant career. For example, Stan Cohen’s study on the Mods and Rockers
  • Cicourel (1968) = influenced by the ideas of Lemert but further argues that police recorded crime statistics are the result of a series of interactions between the CJS and the police which make judgement of pre-conceived ideas – a decision of arrest is purely based on the police’s judgement of the suspect. This concludes that agencies of control construct the official picture of juvenile justice
20 of 39

Marxism and crime

  • Karl Marx:
    • Capitalism is criminogenic – this means it encourages and creates criminals of all classes; relative deprivation, Strain Theory, etc
    • The Law only serves the interest of the Bourgeoise – only working classes being punished. Snider (1993) – capitalist system reluctant to pass laws that regulate business
    • Laws and criminals perform an ideological function for capitalism – ideas of Gramsci and Julliete Garside (2014) – brainwashing and ideological control
  • Althusser (1970) =  talks about RSA (Repressive State Apparatus) – the use of physical; forces to maintain capitalism – London Riots (2011) = the police. Also talks about ISA (Ideological State Apparatus) – the subliminal control of ideas – secondary agents of control 
  • Steven Box (1983) =  talks about “avoidable killing” – the concept of different labels for the classes – corporate murder and proletariat murder. He directly links crime to social control and argues official crime statistics are manipulated to criminalise the powerless and to scare and justify more capitalist control and policing creating a culture of fear. Also states that the powerful create more harm to society with their crime than the “criminal classes”
21 of 39

Marxism and crime

  • Gordon (1973) =  sees there being a big focus on the public fear of proletariat crime with none on white collar crime even though it creates more harm. 91% of Americans have admitted to doing things which receive criminal sentences – CRIME IS A REACTION TO CAPITALISM
  • Chambliss (1975) =  poverty + desire to consume = crime. Also sees that there is universal capitalism in the CJS as prisons benefit capitalism because of the cheap labour. Also says that there is selective enforcement = working classes in prison
22 of 39

White Collar Crime


    • Occupational = crimes by the employee; stealing stationary from workplace
    • Corporate = crimes by the business; Amazon tax evasion
    • State = crime by the government; trafficking
  • Marxism on White Collar Crime;
    • Gordon (1973) = little to no focus on white collar crime, even though it causes more damage – crime is a rational response to capitalism
    • Chambliss (1975) = argues crime manifests from the desire to consume
    • Box (1983) = the powerful are creating more harm to society with white collar
  • ACFE (2010) =  personality based approach = crime is based on the individual’s personality – white collar crime = greedy personality. ACFE argue that white collar criminals are white middle-class men who are loners with addiction issues
  • Sutherland and Cressey (1955) =  differential association = crime has become a cultural norm in which workplace crime has become normal – this means that white collar crime isn’t deemed as deviant, which is why it occurs
23 of 39

Neo-Marxism/Radical Criminology and crime

  • Chambliss (1973) = study on the “Saints” and the “Roughnecks” – two gangs involved in deviant behaviour but are treated differently because they’re from different classes. The Saints were not labelled by the police, however the Roughnecks were and were treated as criminals. Because working class groups are seen as troublesome, society assumes they’re going to be deviant and therefore look for deviance there, not in the Saints. This shows labelling not only comes from the CJS, but society
  • The CCCS = argues that young people take part in subcultures (deviant/criminal) because of feelings of deprivation and as a means of resistance against the ruling class – e.g Punks and Skinheads – going against the mainstreams of dominant ideology 
  • Stuart Hall = the “Black Mugger” – the term “mugging” doesn’t exist in police recorded crime statistics, it’s instead referred to as robbery. The term came from America in the 1970’s and was used by the media only, but only when the perpetrator was black. This created a moral panic surrounding “black mugging” – “black criminality” and created a link between race and crime 
  • Taylor, Walton and Young (1972) = talks about the “new criminology” = a new, radical approach which looks at the capitalist system we are in and the smaller institutions in society. Argues that crime can be explained within the circumstance, meaning and effect of the individual 
24 of 39

Right realism and crime

  • Argues social equality is not possible or desirable – people will get what they deserve in life – Meritocracy. Sees crime as being a result of poor socialisation leading to the wrong norms and values and blames the criminal for their actions. Has a consensus that crime should be harsher
  • Have a consensus that to prevent crime, we must make it more difficult to commit it, as well as greater punishment. The ways of preventing crime = situational crime prevention = specific measures making specific crimes harder to commit - speed cameras.  Environmental crime prevention = looks at preventing all crime in a certain area – CCCTV cameras
  • Right realists are all for zero tolerance policing. Can be seen in New York in the 1990’s, where the homicide rate declined by 82% - it is effective? Believe that by giving harsher punishment, people will be put off committing crime – harsh punishment and prevention of opportunity
  • Both agree that; crime is real – crime is happening in our society and we need to design a list of policies to try and reduce it. Both agree with police statistics – they are a true reflection. Would argue other theorists are far too idealistic. Sees the danger of crime – crime is causing harm to our society 
25 of 39

Right realism and crime

  • Travis Hirschi (1969) = Hirschi argues that most people DON’T commit crime because they have strong family ties, strong friendship networks, responsibilities, engagement in social activity and a sense of morality. This comes under his four types of social bond; attachment, commitment, involvement and belief – without these bonds, one commits crime
  • Charles Murray (1984) = Murray states that crime manifests from inadequate socialisation, the dependency culture, the glamorisation of crime in the media and decline in religion. He also argues that, because crime occurs in the underclass, if a parent can’t afford their family without reliance on welfare services, they should put their children up for adoption and compulsory sterilisation should be considered
  • Wilson and Kelling (1982) = the broken windows theory – where crime is allowed to happen, it will flourish – in an abandoned building, it is never one window that is broken; crime gets worse if left unpunished. For example, the 2011 London Riots – a zero tolerance policing which controlled the crime, however shows that where crime isn’t contained it will flourish
  • Jeremy Bentham =  Rational Choice theory = if a criminal wants to commit a crime, they will do so consciously, meaning they consider the pros and cons of committing crime; right realists would therefore say the cost of crime needs to be harsher. Clarke (1980) agrees – we need to increase the costs so it outweighs the benefits
26 of 39

Right realism and crime

  • Wilson (1975) =  there are three factors which shape crime –biological differences, changes in benefit to cost ratio and the cultural and social changes. Doesn’t believe that poverty is the root cause of crime and argues that the severity of punishment doesn’t matter – if someone can get away with crime, they’ll keep offending. Also argues that if you are brought up with crime being the norm then that will be your lifestyle – IF WE CAN MAINTAIN SOCIAL ORDER, WE CAN GET RID OF THAT CULTURE
27 of 39

Left realism and crime

  • Lea and Young = explains crime in terms of 3 concepts;

Relative deprivation = youths feel relatively deprived in comparison to someone else – have a lesser lifestyle

Marginalisation = youths feel marginalised in society, meaning they are excluded

Subcultures = they then form delinquent/criminal subcultures

  • Restorative justice = mends and repairs the damage of the crime to society – vandalism = clean it. Also includes the offender meeting with the victim, especially within domestic violence cases. Left wings would prefer to use a sentence of community service – paying back to the society you have damaged. USA = 75% reduction in homicide. UK = will not go to prison straight away
28 of 39

Left realism and crime

  • Braithwaite (1989) =  the two types of shaming;

    Disintegrative = public shaming as labels them as a bad person – we refuse to integrate them back into society (right realism)

    Reintegrative = what you’ve done is wrong but that doesn’t make you a bad person. Reintegrates them back into society (left realism)

  • Matthews and Young (1992) = talks about the square of crime – to understand crime, we need to understand the relationships between the organisations
  • Policing =  Left realists are against zero tolerance policing as they believe the lack of trust in the police is a result of that. However believe in multi-agency working, in which a selection of institutions work together to prevent and control crime


29 of 39

Right realism: ethnicity

  • Charles Murray (1984) = the underclass are made up of ethnic minorities – they are the ones involved in the dependency culture. Further argues that there is a high percentage of single mothers in black families – they incorrectly socialise their children who then go on to commit crime
  • Waddington et al (2004) = argues that the higher levels of stop and searches in black and Asians is NOT evidence of racism, but because of those particular groups being more available in society
  • Glynn (2014) = black people do not commit more crime because they are fighting back against society, but they fight back because of the way they are labelled – getting back at a society which has rejected them

•Smith and Gray (1985) = found that the police use explicit and oppressive language – evidence of canteen culture (off-duty socialisation)

  • Chan (1997) = found that there were inappropriate uses of discretion which results in over and under policing – evidence of institutional racism
30 of 39

Left realism: ethnicity

•Lea and Young (1984) = the three causes of crime – relative deprivation (poorer in comparison to someone else – have a lesser lifestyle), marginalisation (when you are outcasted in society); this then leads to subcultures (the formation of criminal and deviant subcultures) •Left realists recognise that police statistics aren’t perfect but argues that they shouldn’t be dismissed and should be used with victim surveys  •Lea and Young = further argue that black people and Asians are more involved in unemployed statistics •Stuart Hall = black people are involved in “white man’s sh*t work”

31 of 39

Cultural criminology: ethnicity

•Carl Nightingale (1993) = studied black males in Philadelphia and found that they were outcasted in society – economic and social exclusion. Also talks about the “paradox of inclusion” = the feeling of wanting to be a part of something which may turn people to crime; the desire to be a part of a mainstream culture which excludes them drives their desire for success. Also discusses the “glorification of violence” = violence is romanticised and is so prevalent

32 of 39

Interactionism: ethnicity

•The labelling of ethnic minorities means that their deviancy amplifies – as a result of the media and labelling, you are 9.7 times likely to be stopped and searched if you are black  •Bowling and Phillips (2003) = argues that Asian individuals have only just been linked with crime. 90’s = Asians linked with intelligence, however since 9/11 they have been linked with terrorism as well as child exploitation – Rochdale child sex trafficking

33 of 39

Neo-marxism: ethnicity

•Paul Gilroy (1982) = the myth of black criminality occurs because of racist stereotypes – black criminality is made out to be worse than it actually is. The violence and slavery that they or their families experienced is the reason why black crime occurs – they are angry and are hitting back at a society which damaged them  •“The alien immigrant” and the “black mugger” personify crime, fuelled by racist police practices against the black communities  •Stuart Hall (1999) = “black mugging” •“Divide and rule” = our society gets split up based on ethnicity and class – our media labels different individuals in different ways – always the Proletariat being labelled, not the Bourgeoisie

34 of 39

Gender: chivalry thesis

•Otto Pollack (1950) = our CJS are more lenient towards women – you are more likely to get custodial sentences and stop and searched if you are male. As well as this, most of the agents of the CJS are men, meaning they will be less likely to be harsh towards a woman •Klein (1973) = however argues that he concept of chivalry is racist and classist as it is founded on the notion that females are “ladies” – white middle class women  •The victim blaming culture = is there evidence of chivalry? The victim is always blamed, especially in cases of ****/sexual assault. Judge = “if she doesn’t want it she only has to keep her legs shut” (Smart 1989) •Carlen (1983) = a woman’s role as a mother is taken more into consideration that a man’s to be a father – shows the appearance of leniency

35 of 39

Gender: biological

•Cesare Lombroso (1898) = women do not take part in crime because they have a disposition that repels them from it – any women that does is a witch •THERE ARE BIOLOGICAL/HORMONAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN WHICH DETERMINES WHY WOMEN ARE LESS LIKELY TO COMMIT CRIME

36 of 39

Gender: functionalism

•Talcott Parsons (1955) = women have an expressive role (caring, loving) and men have an instrumental (breadwinners) in society. Boys are socialised into these roles and so they try to reject the feminine models of behaviour and are therefore more likely to take part in criminal behaviour as a way of expressing their masculinity  •Sex role theory = different genders commit different crimes – women take part in prostitution and shop lifting because they are socialised into being the family and sexual provider = Talcott Parsons (1955) •Talcott Parsons = “warm bath” – nuclear family and the role of the woman

37 of 39

Gender: feminism

•Heidensohn’s four forms of control/the ways women are restricted; ØHome = marital ****, domestic abuse, takers of sh*t ØPublic = sexual harassment, **** shaming, the greater protection parents have over girls ØWork = glass ceiling effect, gender pay gap, everything malestream ØSocial policy = revenge ****, tampon tax, domestic abuse bill •Carlen (1987) = “the class and gender deal” = women who struggle to obtain financial reward will take part in crime – this is the class deal. The gender deal = women who go against the traditional hegemonic feminine figure will also turn to crim. Women are labelled as being unfeminine because crime is •Adler (1975) – liberation thesis = we have a rise of the “new woman” – a liberation of females, an equality in which women are becoming more like men as females start to achieve equality they experience more masculine behaviour

38 of 39

Gender: male crime

•Messerschmidt (1993) = argues young boys experience the world collectively as they are all struggling with their masculinity and youth crime is a way of “doing masculinity” – they get their masculinity from crime. A middle class man will achieve his masculinity in the workplace, but will feel less masculine in the home and so will commit a crime such as domestic abuse. Working classes also show “oppositional masculinity” by doing their masculinity inside and outside of school, however it’s about “accommodating masculinity” – only outside of school will they show “oppositional masculinity” •Winlow (2001) = in a 1980’s society, there was a mass of unemployment in which men lost their “breadwinner” status – we are experiencing a crisis in masculinity as they no longer have the manual jobs to show their masculinity. Further argues that the new masculine careers such as security – however these careers are corrupted, showing how easy it is to be involved in low level organised crime – drug dealing

39 of 39


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Crime and deviance resources »