Covalent Bonding

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Covalent Bonding

KEY POINTS ABOUT COVALENT BONDING:

  • Sharing electrons with other atoms
  • Only share electrons in their outer energy shell
  • This way both atoms have a full outer shell
  • A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons
  • Substances with covalent bonds (electron sharing) can either be simple molecules or giant structures

Simple Molecules:

  • Very strong covalent bonds
  • Weak forces of attraction between these molecules
  • Low melting and boiling points - the intermolecular forces are broken NOT the much stronger covalent bonds
  • Don't conduct electricity - there are no ions, so no elctrical charge.

Giant Structures

  • No charged ions
  • All the atoms are bonded to each other by stong covalent bonds
  • Very high, melting and boiling points
  • Don't conduct electricty - not even when molten (except graphite)
  • Main examples are diamond, silicon dioxide and graphite
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