The Oratory of Divine Love (1497)
Established in Genoe by Ettore Vernazza. This order was based on the ideas of St Augustine, and performed religious excersizes (such as prayer) and charitable work. The main aims of the Oratory was to help the country from poverty and disease and spread the word of God. It nurtured many leaders who would play a major part in the Counter reformation, such as Carafa (Pope Paul IV).
The Theatines (1524)
This order was started by Cardinals Carafa and Catejan, the role of this order was to work, preach and pray in hospitals in Rome.
The Capuchins (1528)
The Capuchins were franciscan friars, who were dedicated to a life of poverty and preaching. By 1574 there were 3,500 members in 300 Italian convents. By 1600 the order had spread to France, Spain Germany and the Netherlands.
- The Jesuits (The Society of Jesus) was founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1540.
- The aims of the Jesuits were : to educate children, perform charitable work, hear confessions and administer the sacraments and finally to defend the Christian Faith by preaching and lecturing.
- Loyola came up with 'THE SPIRITUAL EXERCISES' which were a series of meditative prayers, questions and commentaries and were a four week programm of self evaluation, enabling the student to compare experiences to those of Loyola and Christ
- Achievements of the Jesuits by 1600 included: theology deppartments in universities were often dominated by Jesuits, seminaries were founded in Italy, Spain and Portugal in 1540's and natives were converted by the Jesuits to Christianity (10,000 in India, 200,00 in Japan and 650,000 in the Phillipeans).