Could infections be prevented

Some notes cards on vaccines and ways to prevent infections 

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Questions

How does the skin prevent any microorgnaisms from getting into the bloodstream?

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Answers

  • Keratin in the upper epidermis is a impentrable barrier 
  • Skin flora which are large amounts of microbes live on the skin preventing pathogens from colonizing on the skin by secreting chemicals or competing for nutrients
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Question

How do mucous membranes prevent infection?

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Answers

  • Mucus in the bronchi trap any pathogens 
  • Mucus is moved along by the cilia and can be swallowed therefore the stomach acid with a pH 2 can kill the pathogens, or it can be spat out
  • Lysozymes are present in the mouth and eyes and nose, which break down bacterial cell walls causing the cell to burst
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Question

How does the digestive system aid in preventing bacteria?

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Answers

  • Stomach contains hydrocholoric acid which has a pH2 and kills pathogens
  • Gut contain gut flora, found in both small and large intenstines. They aid the digestive process and secrete lactic acid which is useful in the defence against pathogens
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Question

What is the difference between passive and active immunity?

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Answer

Passive immunity is being given antibodies, e.g. a newborn will receive antibodies via the placenta form their mother. Or of the individual was at risk of becoming infected they would be a shot of antibodies to prevent any infections. No memory cells are produced.

Active immunity is where the body is able to generate the antibodies themself after an immune response. E.g. vaccinations that stimulate an immune response, or when the body has a supply of  B memory and T memory cells 

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Answer

Passive immunity is being given antibodies, e.g. a newborn will receive antibodies via the placenta form their mother. Or of the individual was at risk of becoming infected they would be a shot of antibodies to prevent any infections. No memory cells are produced.

Active immunity is where the body is able to generate the antibodies themself after an immune response. E.g. vaccinations that stimulate an immune response, or when the body has a supply of  B memory and T memory cells 

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