Cosmological Argument

Cosmological Argument is;

  • Based on inductive proofs
  • A posteriori = knowledge we know by experiencing the world
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The Classical Argument - Aquinas;

  • In Aquinas' major work - Summa Theologica - he wrote five ways to prove God's existance

1) The unmoved mover

2) Uncaused causer

3) Possibilty and Necessity 

  • The last two ways are not related to the cosmological arguement
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The first way;

The Unmoved Mover

  • Idea of motion and change
  • An object only moves when an external force is applied
  • Things change through a chain of movements 
  • Movements DO NOT go back to infintiy 
  • Must be a prime mover
  • Prime mover = GOD 

(There is an inductive leap, because it goes from a prime mover straight to God)

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The second way;

The Uncaused Causer

  • A series of causes
  • Nothing can cause itself
  • Cannot have an infinite chain of causes 
  • Rejects infiniate regress
  • Must have been a first cause
  • The First cause is God

EXAMPLE : Dominoes, they have to fall with an external force

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The third way;

Possibilty and Necessity 

  • Contingency (dependent) and Necessity 
  • If time is infinate, there must have been a point where nothing existed
  • If everything in the universe is contingent, then nothing would exist as somethin cannot come from nothing - nihlo nihlo fitt
  • God is therefore contingent but God is a necessary being 
  • Necessary being is God
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The Kalam Arguement;

  • Al Ghazali - muslim scholar, questioned infintiy 
  • Library analogy
  • Actual infinities are impossible, but follows that the universe cannot be infinate - must have had a beginning = GOD
  • Actual infinites = Start and then forever
  • A potential infinity = No beginning or end 
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William Lane Craig;

  • Contempory American Christian Apologist 
  • The universe has a beginning
  • That beginning was caused 
  • That cause was a personal agent
  • GOD 
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Strengths and Weaknesses;


  • Hasn't been dispoved 
  • Widely accepted 
  • Logical 
  • Cumulative case - a lot of different people agree
  • Copleston = if all things have a cause, the universe has a cause 


  • Why does the personal agent have to be God?
  • The universe could be infinate
  • The cause of the universe might not have been a deliberate cause 
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