Location: on the periphery;cut off but at the same time tranquil and peaceful
Physcial Environment: attractive, rugged coastline. Warmer in the winter than in the rest of Britian due to the Gulf Stream. Brings year round tourism
Cultural Heritage: Primary industries - fishing, mining - food and festivals
Human Capital: Brain drain; young move out and elderly move in, no investment - although food industry thriving - Rick Stein.
Social Capital: Sparsely populated, no unity - local institutions and people cease to take effective action together
Technology: Using technologies to attract business to remote areas. Act Now - £2.5 million scheme which promotes development through use of broadband and IT.
Geography: Most southerly region in the UK - as a result, it has a warmer climate due to exposure to the Gulf Stream, 12th largest county; just over 3500km2, only county with just one border - Devon to the east. Long, exposed coastline - beaches, cliffs, bays etc. Truro largest settlement.
Demographies: Population: 534,000 - 39th out of 48 counties in England. Low population density - 41st out of 48 counties in England. However it has a higher population growth - 5th highest in England. Higher than average percentage of retirees (23%) 1st out of 48 counties. Average age is 43.
Culture: Strong celtic roots and retains distinct cultural identity - flag, anthem etc. Folk music heritage, traditional dancing, celtic music festivals. No national sporting teams - traditional Cornish sports include wrestling, hurling etc. Rich culinary heritage: seafood, pasties, dairy produce, local beers.
Economy: Tourist industry very important - makes up 25% of economy. Fishing, mining, quarreying and other primary industries. Creative industry seen boost in recent years through funding - growing art scene within Cornwall.
Deprivation in Cornwall
Remains one of the most deprived areas due to its peripheral location. 5.5 hours by rail to London.Economic core of UK stretches from Leeds to Southampton - 75% of UK's goods and services come from there. Highest wages and levels of investment with densest transport infrastructure. Few job opportunies - leading to depopulation. Poorly served by transport links - not as attractive to investors.
Low wages: Average wages much lower than the rest of Britian and gap is widening. Poorest borough is north Cornwall. Average income: £13,000 compared to £20,000 in rest of Britain. 19% of children live in poverty, 26% of households are in fuel poverty.
Decline in Rural Economy: up until 70s, primary industries dominated employment . These have all experienced decline. Now described as having a post - production countryside - how the countryside should be used if farming declines any more.
Deprivation in Cornwall Continued a
Reasons for Decline: Farming - falling farms prices as there's more competition from supermarkets/exports. Withdrawing EU sibsidies led to accelerating decline. Fishing - EU quotas have allocated fish supplies to other EU countries. Mining - exhaustion of tin reserves in Cornwall. Collapse in tin prices due to overseas competition. Quarreying - St Austrell's got some of the best clay China reserves. Fewer and larger quarries, replacing people with technology has resulted in cutbacks in the workforce.
Tourism: Helped offset job losses from primary sector. Can employ up to 25% in some areas but its seasonal, part time and poorly paid. Visitors often dependent of weather and 33% of profits 'leak' out of county.
Lack of Rural Services: 72% of UK villages don't have a village shop, 39% f households in rural areas live over 2KM from a cash point. 14% of rural parishes have a doctor's surgery.
Lack of Employment Opportunity: 'brain drain' as young people leave, most employment is low paid, people on low incomes are likely to stay that way as the area does not attract investment.
Multiple Index of Deprivation: UK government measures deprivation for means of comparison using the following indications: Income, employment, housing and services, health and disability, education.
Who are the Rebranding Players?
Stakeholders in the rebranding process include: any individual, group or organisation that have an interest in a particular project e.g. financial/emotional involvement.
Rural Stakeholders: EU offer Objective One funding and leader funding. Actions with communities in Rural England (ACRE) promotes local rural initiaves. Natural England - grants to farmers for various environmental agricultural schemes. Big lottery fund. Heritage lottery.
The partnership approach is the best approach.
Rural Rebranding Strategies: Wide range of possibilites for rebranding in rural areas. Ideas draw upon local identity, culture and heritage. Some may involve farm diversification schemes (farmers setting up new non - agricultural enterprises). Some are linked to new technologies (internet).
Rural Strategies: specialst food products with local identity, rural heritage and tourism, arts and media projects, on - farm tourism strategies (fishing, clay pigeon shooting), rural industry developments - specialist furniture/jewellery, farming organic crops/growing herbs, food towns and specialist markets, off farm diversification - e.g. paintballing.
Who are the Rebranding Players Continued
Building on what's there - for example, successful rebranding in Cornwall needs to celebrate what makes Cornwall distinctive. Need to differentiate themselves from other competition to promoste something special. Can build on: coast - sea/beaches, food - cream teas/ice cream/fish and chips, heritage - pirates/mining
Objective One Funding - 1999; Cornwall gained funding designed to boost local economy. Comes from EU where the GDP is 75% of the EU average or less. Aims to encourage investment. Investors have to start the process and others apply for equal amounts of money from other sources - match funding from public sources (local councils) or private sources (banks). This has helped the economy grow faster than the UK average, although it's still the weakest economy 1994 - 2004; grew by 5.8% a year. Schemes have varying success; Eden Project good, West Film Studios, bad.
Rebranding Strategies in Cornwall
'Destination Tourism' - overall concept behind rebranding, marketting individual projects, promoting visitors to then go on to other sites.
Individuals - Rick Stein - Seafood restaurant at Padstow in north led to large numbers of tourists who were interested in his restaurants and food shops - 'Padstein'
Newquay Airport - Expansion of airport by the local council to accept flights from UK cities; Leeds, Manchester, Edinburgh, Gatwick ,Stanstead. Helped reduce Cornwall's geographical isolation.
Extreme Sports Academy - Target younger groups, near Newquay airport. Employed 50 - 60 people year round in 2006 and more in the summer. Hotel/restaurants - local producesrs benefitting unders. Promoting less crime. Works with natural beauty of area. Open all year round. Surfing, kite surfing, making use of waves, large fetch and climate. Brings young to the area. Embarking on £8million project to build 27 new apartments thanks to its success. Changed market.
Jamie Oliver's 15 - Also in Westgate Bay. Attraction due to Jamie's status. Profits fund further training and developement. Locally sourced produce. Trains/supports local people in catering skills all from disadvantaged backgrounds. Low food miles, sustainable fish etc. Year round employment for the select 15. Uses natural beauty to promote ideal setting. Brought money into the area.
Rebranding Cornwall Continued
CUC - not all about tourism. Attracts young people outside the county. Businesses/more investment increasing profits by offering more higher education oppotunities. Encouraging non - seasonal growth of businesses. Helps graduates set up businesses/secure jobs in knowledge based companies in Cornwall. Stopping the young leaving.
Arts and Culture - hosts authors, musicians, broadcasters. Industry promoting - lots in St. Ives. Opportunties - art degrees/festivals. Maurier festival in May for 11 days. Some galleries like the Tate open all year round. Works with Univerisity - draws people into the area. Uses art to draw people into the area.
South West Film Studios - Recieved £2million from Objective One Funding expected to create 200 jobs and would put millions into the economy. Unsuccessful - went bankrupt - building work never completed, re - financing was sought causing increased building cost. Owner was fraudgelent obtaining money from Objective One.
The Eden Project
Flagship Project - stands out; international attraction
Home to two main biomes housing plant species around the world including the world's largest greenhouse. Opened in March 2001. £130million in public funding to build. 2.5 years to build. Long term venture - research, products, education. Located in disused China clay pit - rebranding.
Rainforest biome covers 3.9 acres. Used for tropical plants. Mediterranean biome covers 1.6 acres. Houses arid plants, various sculptures, art exibitions. Contains visitors centre, The Core (education centre) and The Outdoor Biome - series of paths, gardens, attractions.
Promotes environmental awareness - water required to create humid conditions and for toilets is rainwater. Uses energey from one of the many wind turbines.
Stages tourist events such as concerts, art festivals, and has been used in films. 4 miles North East from St. Austell in the borough of Restermel.