Loftus and Palmer - Eye Witness Testimony /Cogniti
aim; how information is displayed has an effect on memory recall
lab experiment with 45 American Students
shown 7 clips ranging from 5 - 30 seconds from safety films for driving education
after each clip participants were asked to write an account of what happened and asked a few questions, including the critical question.
the question changed for each condition (five conditions - 9 in each)
'About how fast were the cars going when they smashed each other?'
'About how fast were the cars going when they collided each other?'
'About how fast were the cars going when they bumped each other?'
'About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?'
'About how fast were the cars going when they contacted each other?'
the dependent variable is the speed estimates given by the participants
Verb Mean speed estimate (mph)
1, They argue the results could be due to a distorion in the memory of the participant from the verbal label.
2, They argue the results could be due to a response-bias that the participant is not sure of the speed and adjusts their estimaye to fit the expectations of the question (demand characteristic)
aim; to find out if participants memory was distorted by the verbal label
lab experiment with 150 participants
shown a one minute clip of 4 second scenes of multiple car accident and then questioned.
there were 3 conditions;
How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?
How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
50 of the participants were not interrogated about the speed of the vehicles
one week later the participants returned (they did not re-watch the film)
the ciritical question was 'Did you seen any broken glass?' placed in random position in the question paper.
response; smahsed hit control
yes 16 7 6
no 34 43 44