Coral Reefs

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Great Barrier Reef, Australia

  • Location:
    shallow water near the coast, this allows them to get sunlight easily and other nourishment from the water. Found in Tropical Areas, in order for the ecosystem to survive.
  • The keppel islands are a group of 16 islands cotinental islands lying 18km off the coastal town of yeppoon
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Features and opportunities Of the Coral Reef

  • Often called the rainforests of the sea, they form some of the most diverse ecosystems on the earth
  • The tide brings the coral reef nutrients
  • the occupy less than 0.1% of the worlds ocean surface, (about half the area of france) yet they provide a home for 25% of all marine species, including fish, molluscs, worms, crustaceans, and tunicates.
  • they flourish regardless of the fact that they are provided with very little nutrients by surrounding ocean waters
  • at least 500 million people rely on coral reefs for food, coastal protection, and livelihoods
  • its estimated that coral reefs provide $375 billion per yea\r around the world in goods and services
  • 20% of the worlds coral reefs have been destroyed in the last few decades, and an additional 20% have been severely degraded particularly in the carribean sea and southeast asia
  • theyve been used in the treatment for diseases such as HIV,ulcers, cardiovascular diseases, etc
  • they deliver ecosystem services to tourism, fisheries and shoreline protection
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Pressures And Value of the coral reef

  • They are fragile ecosystems, especially as they are very sensitive to water temperatures
  • they are under threat from climate change, ocean acidification, blast fishing, cyanide fishing for aquarium fish, overuse of reef resources
  • harmful land use practises, including urban and agricultural run-off and water pollution, which harms the reef by enciouraging excessive algae growth
  • vulnerable to mass bleaching and climate change (global change in temperatures)
  • upland activities such as deforestation and fertiliser can kill downstream corals
  • They are amongst the oldest ecosystems on the earth
  • they support a phenomenal number of different species and provide irreplaceable sources of food and shelter
  • they support a variety of human needs, as they are needed for subsistence, fisheries, tourism, shoreline production, and yield compounds which are important for the development of new medicines
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Shoreline Managment:Aldeburgh

  • HARD ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
  • population; 2,500 people
  • oxford spit of slaughden, runs for 10 miles, with river alde behind it, constantly subject to erosion, this part of the spit eroded in 1981, cutting the spit off the mainland
  • In order to fill the gap, 250,000m3 of shingle was transported
  • SEA WALL, RIP RAP, GROYNES, AND SALT MARSHES WERE USED TO MANAGE THE AREA
  • very important to preserve the spit because if it were cut off, it would change the flow of the river alde, therefore changing the shape of the coastline
  • therefore land furhter downstream needs to be eroded
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Coastal Managment of Dunwich

  • SOFT ENGINEERING
  • Population: 150 people
  • lower priority than aldeburgh because it has a much smaller population, with less economic opportunities, as the typical profiled resident is either an elderly dependant or a fisherman, so they dont contribute much to the areas economy
  • naturally eroded material from here protects area further downstream, which is especially important as there is a nuclear powerplant in sizewell, which if it fell in the sea, the results could be catastrophic
  • lies on the western margin of the southern sea basin, an area which is experiencing slow subsidence due to a range of tectonic factors
  • was once a thriving port, similar to london, with a population of around 4000
  • 6 churches, 3 chapels and anything of historical value has eroded into the sea
  • SHINGLE, SEA WALL, MARRAM GRASS, SAND DUNES
  • in 1990, 7 metres was lost over a few days in a storm that hit the coast
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