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Coordination refers to the orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in order to achieve common purpose.

it is considered the essence of management due to two reasons:

  • coordination is needed in all management functions:
    • in planning, between overall organisational plans and departmental plans
    • in organising, between resources and activities
    • in staffing, between skills of workers and jobs assigned to them
    • in directing, between orders, instructions and suggestions'
    • in controlling between standards and atual performance
  • coordination is needed at all levels
    • top level
    • middle level
    • lower level

characteristics of coordination

  • coordination integrates group efforts
  • coordination ensures unity of action
  • coordination is a continuous process
  • coordination is an all pervasive function
  • coordination is the responsibility of all the managers
  • coordination is a deliberate function

importance of coordination

  • growth in size
  • functional differenciation
  • specialisation 

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