Co-ordinated Science IGCSE Biology Unit 2

Cell structure and movement in and out of cells

  • Created by: Georgina
  • Created on: 02-04-12 03:17

Animal Cell Structure

Cell surface membrane 
Small temporary vavuoles
Glycogen found inside
Secretory vesicles


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Plant Cell Structure

Cell Wall
Cell surface membrane
Large permanent vacuole
Starch found inside

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Red Blood Cell

-Transports oxygen around the body
-No nucleus
-Very flexible
-Filled with the pigment Haemoglobin which carries oxygem 

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Muscle Cell

-Contracts so that structures can be brought close together
-Many protein fibres in the cytoplasm
-Fibres can shorten the cell when there's energy available 

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Sperm Cell

-Delivers one set of chromosones 
-Fertilizes the female sex cell
-Head of the cell carries the chromosones

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Motor Nerve Cell

-Conducts nerve impulses
-Has a long fibre called an axon
-Impulses travel along the axon
-Has a fatty sheath that gives electrical insulation
-Many banched ending which connects to lots of cells 

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Root Hair Cell

-Absorbs minerals and water from the soil
-Has a long extention called the root hair
-Root hair increases the surface area for absorbtion 

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Xylem Vessel

-Transports water
-Supports the plant
-Has no cytoplasm so water can pass through easily
-No end wall so it forms a continuous tube
-Walls are strangthenned with a waterproof substance called LIGNIN 

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The net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient

-Diffusion is the main process by which substances move over short distances in living organisms (e.g. oxygen enters the blood by diffusion)

-Diffusion distances are short
-Concentration gradients are maintaned
-Diffusion surfaces are large 

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The diffusion of WATER molecules from a regiong of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration through a partially permeable membrane

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