Controversy A

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Germany to blame

Fischer Thesis

Planned for european domination

aggressive weltpolitik

roots of expansionism in pre 1914, social, economic, political tensions

Bethmann = chancellor - expansionism

military led government = nationalistic

unite to solve domestic issues (primatder inner politik.)

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Germany to blame

PLANNED AGGRESSION WAR

Schlieffen Plan 1905 = Unprovoked attacks on France and Belgium (1914), plan to prevnt war on 2 fronts, defeat france then Russia. (Bulow = chanceloor)

War Council (1912) = meeting of kaiser and military leaders (minus bethmann holllweg, who was chancellor) on possibility of war. argue sooner rather than later (war against russia) and make military reparations.

September Programme (1914) = plans made of annexation and domination o once war won = dominance over europe sought too small timeframe during WW1.

Weltpolitik = arms race, tirpitz expands fleet = antagonize Britain = aim for 2 thirds of British Navy. Dreadnought and naval laws to be more powerful, provoke British arms race

Alliances - isolate france

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Germany to blame

PREVENTIVE WAR:

Fearful of Russia's military and want to eliminate threat before too late, fearful of triple entente.

JULY CRISIS:

Opportunity to sop, instead gave the blank cheque and didnt accept Belgiiums neutrality.

ACTIONS DURING 1905 - 1911 CRISES - kRUGER TELEGRAM - BOER WAR (Bulow leader)

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Shared Guilt

Imperialism: Rukers turn to expansion abroad to solv domestic issues. = empire building (colonies) = all great powers (Russia, france, germany)

Real Politik: foreign policy in pursuit of self interest and exercising power.

Triple Alliance: 1882, austria hungary, italy, germany = bloc against france and russia, assist each other if attacked by france or russia except if britain involved.

Triple Entente : Russia, france and britain. did not require to go to war on behalf of the others, but stated that they had a "moral obligation" to support each other.

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Shared Guilt

WAR BY TIMETABLE - AJP TAYLOR

Great powers boxed in by war plans.

1. Blank cheque + Austria Hungary send serbia ultimatium (accept all terms but 1)

2. AH declare war on serbia

3. Russia partly mobilise

4. Germany tells Russia not to mobilise or they will

5. Russia fully mobilise

6. Germany declare war on Russia

7. Germany use schieffen - declare war on france and invade belgium

8. Britain declare war on Germany

DOMINO EFFECT


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German Innocence - Encirclement

VICTIM OF AGGRESSIV EENTENTE

- Before 1914 had attempted rapprechement bu britain uncompromising especially in morocco, boer war - kruger.

- france aim to encircle through allies

Russia first to mobilise, suport serbia.

TRIGGER = Assassination of Franz Ferdinand = serbia at sarajevo

AUSTRIA HUNGARY = Annexe bosnia 1908 want to show off power opress serbia

BALKANS = destablished, power vaccum filled by puppet countries

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German Innocence - Encirclement

CONTAINMENT = Policies

BLANK CHEQUE = dragged into war after encirclement

NAVY AND EXPANSION FOR DOMESTIC UNIFICATION

1905 - 1911 = FIRING SITUATIONS:

Bosnian crisis

Boer war

2nd moroccan crisis

Balkans

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