Controversies exam revision

controversies psychology

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  • Created by: Lucy
  • Created on: 20-06-11 13:49

Gender Bias

"God created man first, therefore women will never be as equal and will always be considered second class citizens."

Psych- Male dominated field = ANDROCENTRIC BIAS (seen in research and methodology used)


-places males at centre (male dominated).

-Ignore female gender = can't generalise (population validity)


-lab exp- 40 males (no females- androcentric) but generalised findings to whole public.

-1974- Milgram conducted another using just females. (obedience didn't differ significantly).

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Gender Bias 2


-evident in research due to sampling of ppts.

-LAB EXPS- criticised as they suit males more (control). tell us nothing about women in the real world.

-lab exps into leadership = great differences between genders.

-natural methodologies = insight into real world AND = minimal differences.

-NICHOLSON- objective research methods = only individula's behaviour, not social contexts etc.

-TARVIS- highlighted that there are diff' reasons why men & women behave.

-MEN = because of up-bringing

-WOMEN = because of hormones

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Gender Bias 3


-KOHLBERG- women morally inferior to men. K& Krammer focused on moral development (stages of moral thinking). MEN= law and order WOMEN = personal.

- TAYLOR et al (2000)- gender differences? = evolution?

-fight/flight response (females) is because of biological mechanisms.

-hormones- (males), activating behaviour


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Gender Bias 4

ALPHA BIAS- differences EXAGGERATED (stereotypical views on diffs')

-FREUD- no chance, ever equal.

     - Psychosexual development -PENIS ENVY- women underdeveloped?

HORNEY- (Penis envy- male bias). - WOMB ENVY- male's jealousy

-although differences can be exaggerated, there isn't always a preference over one another.


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Gender Bias 5

-MACOBY AND JACKLIN- 4 factors we need to recognise in 'GB'.

1- identify real differences between genders and only then can we overcome GB.

-E.g. SIMON BARON- COHEN- Women more empathising so they perform better in  studies like case studies or observations.

       - Men more systemising and controlled so perform  better in studies like laboratory experiments.

(just one way of overcoming GB in psychological studies)

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Gender Bias 6

-No matter how hard we try = always be GB. Because of history and views becing passed through generations.

- NOTHING TO TO WITH WHO WAS CREATED FIRST (not scientific, so not trusted)

- Once understand differences = use to gender's advantages.

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