"God created man first, therefore women will never be as equal and will always be considered second class citizens."
Psych- Male dominated field = ANDROCENTRIC BIAS (seen in research and methodology used)
-places males at centre (male dominated).
-Ignore female gender = can't generalise (population validity)
-lab exp- 40 males (no females- androcentric) but generalised findings to whole public.
-1974- Milgram conducted another using just females. (obedience didn't differ significantly).
Gender Bias 2
-evident in research due to sampling of ppts.
-LAB EXPS- criticised as they suit males more (control). tell us nothing about women in the real world.
-lab exps into leadership = great differences between genders.
-natural methodologies = insight into real world AND = minimal differences.
-NICHOLSON- objective research methods = only individula's behaviour, not social contexts etc.
-TARVIS- highlighted that there are diff' reasons why men & women behave.
-MEN = because of up-bringing
-WOMEN = because of hormones
Gender Bias 3
BETA BIAS- differences MINIMISED
-KOHLBERG- women morally inferior to men. K& Krammer focused on moral development (stages of moral thinking). MEN= law and order WOMEN = personal.
- TAYLOR et al (2000)- gender differences? = evolution?
-fight/flight response (females) is because of biological mechanisms.
-hormones- (males), activating behaviour
-BOTH BECAUSE OF HORMONES/GENES
Gender Bias 4
ALPHA BIAS- differences EXAGGERATED (stereotypical views on diffs')
-FREUD- no chance, ever equal.
- Psychosexual development -PENIS ENVY- women underdeveloped?
HORNEY- (Penis envy- male bias). - WOMB ENVY- male's jealousy
-although differences can be exaggerated, there isn't always a preference over one another.
- GENDER BIAS HAPPENS BOTH WAYS
Gender Bias 5
-MACOBY AND JACKLIN- 4 factors we need to recognise in 'GB'.
1- identify real differences between genders and only then can we overcome GB.
-E.g. SIMON BARON- COHEN- Women more empathising so they perform better in studies like case studies or observations.
- Men more systemising and controlled so perform better in studies like laboratory experiments.
(just one way of overcoming GB in psychological studies)
Gender Bias 6
-No matter how hard we try = always be GB. Because of history and views becing passed through generations.
- NOTHING TO TO WITH WHO WAS CREATED FIRST (not scientific, so not trusted)
- Once understand differences = use to gender's advantages.