Factors influencing behaviour that operate at a distance (evolution) or immediately (family). These factors emerge straight from conception.
- E.g. HOLLAND discovered a genetic link in monozygotic twins and rates of Anorexia.
Factors other than genes that have an effect on behaviour. Such as; the media or family/friends.
- E.g. BECKER discovered that the media caused an increase in eating disorders in FIJI. this was not due to genetics.
The discrimination of one gender due to preference over the other. Androcentrism is evident in most psychological research.
- E.g. MILGRAM used only males in his original study. This means that results couldn't be applied to females and the LAB environment is also masculine, therefore producing more gender bias.
When research doesn't take into consideration religion, tradition and differences between regions around the world.
- E.g. YERKES used a test which was believed to be biased towards white soldiers, in order to make black soldiers seem less intelligent.
The concept that an individual has the freedom of choice to make decisions. it isn't predetermined by any other factors.
- E.g. CBT encourages patients to change their thinking in order to change their mental state.
The concept that someone's behaviour has been predetermined from birth. we don't have control over our actions and a lack of certain degree of choice.
- E.g. FREUD'S Psychosexual Stages. Parents determine our behaviour by creating fixation during our early life.
When ethical issues become so bad that it becomes a problem for the researcher and harmful to the participants.
- E.g. ZIMBARDO's stanford prison experiment had to be stoppped after 6 days because participants were physically and psychologically harmed.
Results of a scientific study are useful within the realm of science and knowledge. Scientific findings have a practical benefit to society.
- E.g. PAVLOV'S DOGS helped to develop a theory of classical conditioning. results could be measured scientifically, therefore providing evidence.