Definitions and examples (2 marks)

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  • Created by: Lucy
  • Created on: 20-06-11 10:59

Genetic Influence

Factors influencing behaviour that operate at a distance (evolution) or immediately (family). These factors emerge straight from conception. 

  • E.g. HOLLAND discovered a genetic link in monozygotic twins and rates of Anorexia.
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Environmental Influence

Factors other than genes that have an effect on behaviour. Such as; the media or family/friends.

  • E.g. BECKER discovered that the media caused an increase in eating disorders in FIJI. this was not due to genetics.
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Gender Bias

The discrimination of one gender due to preference over the other. Androcentrism is evident in most psychological research.

  • E.g. MILGRAM used only males in his original study. This means that results couldn't be applied to females and the LAB environment is also masculine, therefore producing more gender bias.
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Cultural Bias

When research doesn't take into consideration religion, tradition and differences between regions around the world.

  • E.g. YERKES used a test which was believed to be biased towards white soldiers, in order to make black soldiers seem less intelligent.
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Free Will

The concept that an individual has the freedom of choice to make decisions. it isn't predetermined by any other factors.

  • E.g. CBT encourages patients to change their thinking in order to change their mental state.
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The concept that someone's behaviour has been predetermined from birth. we don't have control over our actions and a lack of certain degree of choice.

  • E.g. FREUD'S Psychosexual Stages. Parents determine our behaviour by creating fixation during our early life.
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Ethical Costs

When ethical issues become so bad that it becomes a problem for the researcher and harmful to the participants.

  • E.g. ZIMBARDO's stanford prison experiment had to be stoppped after 6 days because participants were physically and psychologically harmed.
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Scientific Benefits

Results of a scientific study are useful within the realm of science and knowledge. Scientific findings have a practical benefit to society.

  • E.g. PAVLOV'S DOGS helped to develop a theory of classical conditioning. results could be measured scientifically, therefore providing evidence.
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