How DNA codes for proteins
What is a gene? What’s it a sequence of? What does it code for? Whats a polypeptide? What is it a unit of? How many genes in the human genome? What’s the genome? How many nucleotide base pairs? Where are a few? Where are most of them situated? Within the what? What does each gene occupy? What does each chromosome consist one of? What is a gene then? What is the DNA in the chromosomes associated with? Gene’s codes for polypeptides such as structural like? Or transport? Or defence? Or membranes? Or markers? What in muscles cells? What in the cytoskeleton? Membranes? Respiration? Metabolic reactions? As they code for enzymes what are they involved in the control of? And thus the synthesis of what?
What does the sequence of nucleotide bases on a gene provide? For what? What does the genetic code have? What sort of code? Meaning? How many bases arranged into how many groups? What’s the number of different triplets? How many amino acids are there? What is the code also> meaning? What do some codes not correspond to~? What do they do? What’s it described as? E.g.? What has this proved useful for? How? However what are there? E.g. mammalian mitochondria? E.g. ciliated eroticists?
How DNA codes for proteins
Where are genes? Where are they in the cell? Where are proteins assembled? What must happen for it to get their? To pass through where to where? What is this copy? What I the first stage of protein synthesis? What is made? Called? What’s it used as? What are there in the nucleoplasm? What’s activated? What do they have extra? How many RNA are activated? Name them? For a gene to be transcribed what must it do? What breaks? What binds where? What bonds? What are the complementary bases on the template strand? What catalyses this reaction? What is released? What is this energy used for? What is mRNA produced complementary to? What is it then? What does the mRNA do? Passes where through? To where?
What is the second stage of protein synthesis? What happens here? What are they assembled according to? What is the genetic code copied from DNA into mRNA now translated into? What is this chain called? Where does it happen? Where might they be?
Where are ribosomes assembled? From what? What is each made of? What is there? What can fit where? What can the ribosome then do? Whilst? What does it do? Making? The sequence of amino acids is critical because it forms? What dos the primary structure determine? What is this? What does the tertiary structur allow what si the tertiarty dependent on? What is thepolypepid echain determined by? Leading to the protein having what? so it can? What if the tertiary structure is altered? Give example? Another example chlopride ion channel?
Whats the third form of RNA? Where is it made? Where does it pass? What are these lentghs fo? What do they fold into? What do they have exposed? What can bind? Whats at the other end? Known as? What can these do?
What does a molecule fo mRNa bind to? what do two codons attach to? how many bases is that? What is the first exposed mRNA codon? What forms hydrogen bonds with this codon? Using what? what does the second tRNA bear? What does it bind to? with its complementary what? what bond forms between two adjacent amino acids? What catalyses the reaction? Where it is? What does the ribosome do now? Reading what? what does a third tRNA bring? What forms? What is it now? What does the first tRNA do? What can it do now? What does the polypeptide chain do? Until when? What aren’t there no corresponding tRNA for these codons? What is complete? What do some proteions have to be activated by? Such as? What does this stad for? What is it? Like? What dose it do? How? So its better fir to? in prokaryotes where is the DNA? Wher does translation begin?
What is a mutation? What is a gene mutation a change to? give example? What is a chromosome mutation? Such as? When may mutations occur? What may certain substances cause? Scuh as? What do thse include? Found where? What are DNA (gene) mutations? What does the structure of DNA molecules mae them? Reducing the chance of? What does occur though? When may this happen? In mitosis or meiosis? Mutations in mitosis are wht muatatoons? Are they passed to offspring? What do they contribute to? or? What about meiosis? What are the two main classes of DNA mutations? What happens in point mutations? What are these called? What about the other one? What does this cause?
What dose the gentic code consit of three of? Within what molecule? What is it transcribed to? on what molecule? What is this a copy of? Examples for point mutation? What is only one altered? What If there is insertion or deletion? Producing what? what has a greater effect? What are many genetic deiseases the result of? Name two? What is the majority of mutatuion of in cystic fibrosis? Whats deleted in the what? what does sickle cell anemai result of? On what? for what? what does this cause to inserted? In place of? What are growth promoting genes called? Give example?what can they be changed to? by what? what deos this do? What do they remain? What do they promote? What does it lead to? what is Huntington disease result of? What is this? What dose the normal Huntington protein have repeating? What if they expand above threshold dnumber? What does the symptoms manifest to?
What If a gene is altered by a change to its base sequence? What is it then? When will it produce no change? Or if its what sort of mutation? But the base triplet has changed? What can the mutation cause change to? and therefore its? Does it always give an advantage or disadvantage? What is the ffect then? Give example? Why is it neutral? What would be an advtange? Define allele? What can some people not taste? What if you can ? in large quantites what is it? What do some ear lobes have?
What did early humans in Africa have? What protected them from the effects of ultraviolet light? What could they synthesis from the light? Why is it an important source? Can it be added? What if humans had mutations to genes determing skin colour? What happened as humans migrated to more temperate climates? Who had the advantage ? why? What does lack of vitamin D cauise? What in females? What does vitamin d protect from? Have the inuit people lost skin pigment? What do they eat? So is it always benfecial? What is the environment never? Hat does ti do? Who is adapted better? What happens then? What is this? The mechanism of? Without genetic mutations what would happen?
The Lac Operon
What can the bacterium e coli do? How many? What is their great variation of? Give example? What rate are enzymes involved in celluar functions synthesised?what about induciable enzymes? According to what? what do bacteria adapt to? how? What do ecoli normally respire? What it can also use? What can ecoli grown in a culture medium with no lactose be placed in? what cant they do at first? Why? Whats the enzyme that catalses the hydrolysis of lactose to gluclose and galactose? What protein transports lactose into the cell? What happens a few minuts after being placed int the medium? By how much? What must lactose trigger? Whats it known as? However when is production only triggered?
What is the lac operon? What parts does it consist of? What does Z code for? What does y code for? What does each consist of? What can happen to them? Whats in the operator region? What is it a length of? Next to what? what can it do? Whats in the promoter region? What binds to this? To being what? what is the last part? Is it actually part of the lac operon?
The Lac Operon
When lactose is absent from the growth medium: what happens to the regulator gene? Meaning? What is synthesised? What does it have two of? What do they bidn to? what does the repressor protein bind to? in doing this whats converted? What normally atcthe shere? What cant happen now? What cant happen to the structural gene?without mRNA what cant happen to these genes? What cant be syntheisesd? When lactose is added to the growth medium: what is lactose known as? Where does it bind? What does this cause? So what cant bind where? What does the repressor do? Meaning? From where? What does this leave the promoter region? What can now bind? Whats initiated? What does the operator-repressor-inducer system act as? What does it allow? Into where? Whats the result? what can they convert? Using what enzyme? What can they then be used in? gaining what from where?
Genes and body plans
What is drosophila melanogaster? When the eggs are laid what is triggered? How fast? What happens at first? What about after the 8th divison? 11th division? What does the divison rate do? What do the genes do? What deos the palasma membrane do? What is formed? What about 2-3 hours later? What do these correspond to? what is it the same as? What three segements merge to what? how many thoracic segments? Adbdominal segements? What happens at metamorphis? What is the development genetiocally mediated by? What determine the embryos polarity? What does polarity refer to? what do segmentation genes specify? What about homeotic selector genes? What are these? What are the two gene families? What can mutations of these genes cause? Where can this be seen? Where what look like what?
Where are there homeobox genes? Including? What do they each contain? Known as? What does this sequence produce? What are some of these? What do they bind to? to do what? meaning? Do they differ in animals? How in plants? What are homebox genes arranged in? how many clusters do worms have? Fruit flies? Vertebreas? Why did the increase in hox clusters arise? How are they expressed? What do they specify? How are they activated? What is retinoic acid? What does it activae? In what order? Such as? What do these syetms run? What substance is it? What does it govern? What is crucial? What if to mch? Particularly when? What will it cause? Such as?
What is apoptosis? Where does it occur? How many miotic divisons should cells undergo? Called what? what should it then undergo? That lead to? what is this contrast to? what is that? When does it occur? What was studied? Using what microscope? What was distinguished? Why the term apoptosis? What did we used to think cells are? What was discovered? What was shown to be immortal? What was developed? What aer these used in? such as?
What do enzymes break down? What does the cytoplasm become? What about organelles? What does the cell membrane do? Forming? What does chromatin do? What breaks? What does DNA do? What does the cell break into? Taken up by what? what happens to the cellular debris? What doesn’t it do? How fast is the process? What is the process controlled by? Where do some come from?and others? What do the signals include? Made by what cells? What can induce apoptosis? How? Where are proteins released? What do they bind to? allowing what?
What is apoptosis part of? What is their extensive? And? Followed by what? what do the excess cells do? Preventing what? when is apoptosis tightly regulated? What do different tissues use different? What does it weed out? During what? what about limb development? What about in chuoldren? What about adults? What should the rate of cells dyinging balance? What if the rates aren’t balanced? What does cell signalling play a crucial role in?
What can all living oganims do? What can reproduction be either of? How is asexual reproduction be achieved by? What are the offspring like? How is variation introduced in this case then? What are the offspring of sexual reproduction? What does each parent produce? Called? Where does each gamete come from? What do they do? At what? producing what?
What is made when to gametes fused? What do the chromosomes do? Therefore what does the chromosome number in each gamete need to be? Meaning? What does this ensure? What is meiosis? How many divisons? Referred to as what? what does each divison have? Name the,? Whats before meiosis 1? What happens? Whats the result? joined at the what? what does the cell now contain? Rather than?
What do the chromatin do? What does it undergo? So what does it do? What can they take up? And be seen under what? what do the chromsomes do? Called? Meaning? Forming? What does each member of the pair have? At what? what does each pair consist of? What do the non sister chromatids do? Attach at points called? Singular? What may they swap? Called? What does the nucleus do? What about the envelope? What forms? Whats it made of? How long may prophase 1 last for? Depending on? And? Whats next? What do the bivalents do? Attachted to? at the? What are still present? How are they arranged? Called? What does each member of a homologous pair face? What does this allow? Whats next? What happens to the homologous pairs? What don’t divide? What seperates? What about lenegths of chromatid that have been crossed? Whast next? What is formed in most animal cells? One around each what? at each what? how does the cell divide? What is their a bried? What do the chromsomes do? What about in plant cells?
Where is meiosis 2? What has reformed? What does it do? What disappears? What do chromsomes do? What forms? Whats next? What do chrosomoes arrange into~? What are they attached to? at ? what do the chromatids of each chromosome do? What divides? What is pullewd apart? To where? By? What do the chromatids do? What reforms? Around what? in animals what do the two cells now do? What about plants?
The significance of meiosis
What does sexual reproduction increase? As what combines? What does genetic variation increase? How? What needs to happen to gametes to maintain the original chromose number? Thus what happens when two haplid gametes join at fertilisation?
Meiosis increase genetic variation by crossing over when? How? Genetic reassormtment due to what? what phase? Genetic also due to? at what? and what else? How does fertilisaitn increase genetic variation? Where does crossing over occur? What do the homologous pair come together to form? How many cross over events occur on each pair of human chromsomes? What do nonsister chromatids do? Attach at points called? What may the chromosomes do at these points? What do the broken ends of the chromatids rejoin? What does this lead to? what do they contain? But what? what is this called? What does it produce? What will they eventually become? What remains in place in metaphase? What do they hold? Facing what way? What holds the homologous pair on the spindle equator ensure?
What is the reassortment of chromosomes the cosneuqnece of? And? What does each gamete aquire? What can from ths person alone theortically produce? What is the actual number? Why? What is the reassortment of chromatids the result of? Why are they no longer genetically identical? How they align at metaphase 2 determines what? what is an ovum really? How many are relased? How many spermatozoa? All the same? How many fertilise? What combine to make what? What can also occur during interphase? When? Where can this also happeb> what other mutation may occur? What does the mutation increase? What if it occurs in the sperm or eg that is used in fertilistaion?
Some terms you need to know
What is the genotype? What does it describe? In what context? What is an organism with two identical allelles for a particular gene called? What about two different alelles? What is cystic fibrosis caused by? On what? what are they? What does the mutation disrupt? What does it change the shape of? What don’t they do? What happens to cilia in the lungs? What accumulates? What occurs? What may recurrent infection lead to? what do heterozygotes have one of? Whats can it be represented as? What is the other one called?whats that represented as? What does this person have? Do they have symptoms? What are they called? What is their phenotype? What are people with cystic fibrosis? What is their genotype? What about people with CFCF? Whats their phenotype? What does the phenotype refer to? meaning? What are they determined by? And? Example of Siamese cats? What do the altered enzymes fail to do? What do they work?
What can an allele be? When is it dominant? What are also described as dominant? What can it also be? When is it recessive? What is the allele for Cystic fibrosis? Who only have symptoms? Whats the genotype of CFcf? What are also said to be recessive? When are two alles of the same gene described as codominant? In cattle one of the genes for colour has two allelesl name them? What phenotype does heterozygotes CrCw have? What are they described as? How are blood groups classified? What are the antigens determined by? Whciha recessive whice ar edomiannt?
Some terms you need to know
What does linkage refer to? what is inherited then? Why? Unless what is formed? Where? What happens at crossover? What does linkage reduce? In pea plants what is the gene for height? And texture? Where are they both found? In peas what does n=? what does this mean? What about colour of seeds and colour of flower? When is a characteristic sex linked? Where are most sex linked geners found ? why? Name a sex linked genes? In mamales what are females? What do they have? Is that the same for all animals?
Using Genetic Diagams -1
Whats the first step in drawing genetic diagrams? What is the gene represented by? What is upper case? Lower case? Can there be more than two alleles? What does the gene have? What are the allels denoted in? give example of blood groups? How is codominacen represented? Give example?
How was haemophilia noted? What was this one of the firs tof? What is neede for blood clot followinga wound? What is a series of? What is one factor? Factor what? what codes for it? Where? What does the recessive allele express? What does this lead to? how many x chrosmoems do males have? What if it has the allel for haemophilliaA? What are these males called? Why? What does haemophilia show? Having a carrier mother and a normal father: What are the chances of having a carrier female? Normal female? Affected male? Normal male? Where is the DMD gene for a muscle protein? Called? What size protein? Involved in? what do mutations of the gene result in? symptoms of boys with the gene? What often occurs? Why? Pg125
Using Genetic Diagams -2
What was the first human disease to be understoof at a molecular level? What do all individuals with the disease have? What differs? Whats it like in normal haemoglobin? Whats present in sickle-cell anaemia? What happens when this abnormal haemoglobin is deoxygenated? What does this deform? Making them what? an unable to? what happens after many cycles of oxygenation and deoxugenation? Or? What if enough becomed lodged in capillaries? What don’t reciev oxygen? Leading to? what become damaged? Whats genotype of normal haemoglobin? What about sickle cell anamia? What about symptomless heterozygoteS? In heterozygotes where are red blood cells made? What are they like? What does the presence of normal haemoglobin mean? So what are they like? What are they called? At a whole organism level what could the organism be considered? What about molecular and cellular? Why? What is it? What are the possible genotypes and phenotypes of offspring of two parents both carriers of sickle-cell anaemia?
What dpes one of the genes for coat colour in shorthorn cattle have? What does it code for? What do homozoygovs indivulas with genotype CrCr have? Cw CW? What about heterozygotes CrCw? What if red and white shorthorn cattle are interbed? A mixture of? If two roan shorthorn cattle are interbred then the probale phenotypes are what?
Interactions between gene loci -1
Interactions between alleles at the same locus may affect what? what are there cases of? What may one gene do to another? What is this called? Meaning? What may the genes involved control? How may thyey work? Called? Meaning? Or they amy work?
The homozygous presence of a recessive allele may prevent? Where? What are the alleles at the first locus to the alleles at the second locys called? Is epistatis inherited? What is it? What does it reduce? Give example of recessive episatasis? Give the two gene loci? Are they on the same chromosome? A pure breeding pink flowered vairtey salvia whats the genotype? Crossed with pure breeding white flowered variety whats the genotype? What are the F1 generation genotype? Phenotype? What does interbreeding f1 give? Ratio? What is the homozygous aa? To what? what cant happen if there is no dominant allele A present? Whats the second type of epistasis? When does it occur? Give example? Give the two gene loci involved? What does the presence of D result in? regardless of? What about homozygous dd in the presence of E alleles? What about two e? what if two white coloured double heterozygotes DeEe are crossed? In what ratio? What does that indicate? Whats another example? What is the loci interaction? Whats the dominant allele? What colour? What if they have the domiant C? what about birds with homozygous c? what do pure breeding wwhat about pure breeding white Wyandotte chickens? What hite lehorn hcickens genotypes? What if these two mate? Whats their genotype? What if they interbreed? What ratio?
Interactions between gene loci -1
What was discovered when two strains of white flowered sweet peas genotype (ccRR x CCrr) crossed? What if the f1 interbreed? Ratio? What does the explanation suggest? What are the other combinations? What do they produce? Why is this? How do the two gene loci pridcue these results? Explain?
What determines sex
What are males? What sex chromosmes? Females? What sex chromosomes? Is this the case for all animals? Examples? in some animals what determisn sex? What animal?what are higher temps? Can animals change sex? Example?
Why do newly hatched chicks have to be sexed? Why is this difficult? What is there in Plymouth rock breeds? What does this cuase?what do newly hatched chicks with the allele B? seen as? What about those with b? what does a poultry breeder want to know? What are males and femaleS? So what does a female with a white spot have? What about male with black head? Why? How can we find out? Do it? What are the phenotypic ratios? What does this enable the breeder to do?
What is there a rare moth? What are they? When such a female is mated with a normal male what is the offspring? What are the wing markings of budgerigars? What is the sex linked allele? For? Is it dominat or recessive to what? what does the allele b in the absence of B produce? Where is the gene?
Interactions between gene loci -2
What can colour coat of miec be? Meaning? What other colours? What is the gene for agouti? What is allele a? when? Is it black? What about B/b at a separate locus controls what? what about indiuvalds with genotype B-? what about bb? What are the two steps of agouti pigmentation? What happens when serveral pairs of agouti indivualds of genotype AaBb crossed? What ratio?
What two geni loci interact to affect comb shape?? What does the effect depend on? What happens when tru breeding PPrr are bred with true ppRR? What about when walnut combed chickena re interbred? Ratio?
Continuous and discontinous variation
What does discontinuous varitation describe? what catergories? What aren’t there no one? You either what or what? ive examples? continuous descibres? What are these differences? What don’t they have? Examples?
What are can both of these types be a result of? However in dsicointous variation what if there is more than one gene? Meaning? What are ones with just one gene described as? Give example? In disocintous variation what do different alleles at a single gene locus effect have? What about at differnet lovi? Examples? In continuous cariation what are they controlled by? What does each gene provide? What size effect? How many though? What are these known as? What are the characterisc they control called? Are they linked? Are they on the same chromosome? What was discovered? What may theyre be genes for? What may the alleles of each gene add? Hence the effect? Give example?
Even though AABBCC may give the potential to be a height will it indefinitl reach it? Why? What are these factors? What do they limit? In humans what is intelligence determined by? And? How is the potential reached? where? What is it aided by? What influences polygenetic traits more?
What is always necessary in natural selection and artificial selection? What changes constantly? What must the organism be? Passing on? What is this the basis of? What have we done for years? So why is quantititve geneteics useful? What are many of the traits requires?
What does a group of indivualds have more of than one indivudal? What does this give rise to? how can it be measured? What factors can alter the amount of genetic variation within a population? What did Darwin deduce in three steps? What did scientific begin to understand in the bais of genetics? What did they relasie studying evoloution? What frequency did they realise they had to consider? Not just? What basic principles were developed? What did they focus on? What did they measure?
What do we observe phenol or genotype? To measure freqncy of allele what did we need to know? For traits that show co dominance the frequency of the heterozygotes phenotype is wgat the heterozygous genotype? Give examples? wat does each allel control? What may na invidual be? Give geno and phenotypes? Because these are codominant what can be determined? What if one is recessive? what can be determined then? What was developed? What are the assumptions it makeS?
The roles of genes and enviroment in evolution
What can all organisms do? Therefore what do they have the potential to do? What do many populations reach? Meaning? What do they remain? Therefore what happens to the young? What if they did? Give the environmental factors that limit growth of a population? What do these factors offer? What are some? Meaning? And others? Meaning? What will happen over a period of time? When will the population size shrink? What does this reduce? What will the population do? What will there be more of as it increases? What does intraspecific mean?
Why will some members be adapted better? What will they do to others? Give example? What will it have a greater chance of reaching? And doig what? what will the young have? Giving it what? what about prey animals what may they have? What is predation here? What does it increase? What deos it reduce? What is acting here? How? What sort of selection is this? What if a new phenotype arises? What wont it be? What changes if the environment changes? Give example? What are they more likely to do? And do what? passing on? What ffrequency changes? And another freuqneyc what selection is this? What does it lead to? what force is it? Of? What may a large population of organisms be split into? By what? examples? what does this leave? What are they? In each case what happens to difdiffernet alleles? Evenatully what will happen? What will there be?
What is a species?
What is a definition of a species? What sort of concept is this? When is this concept problematic? Also? In some species what looks differnet? Or they look different o? what about isolated populations?
What do all living organism have? What do closelrly related organism have? What do scientists use? What are the differences expressed by? Formula? Any group of organisms with haplotpyes that are more similar to ech other than tothose in any other group is called? What is the molecular systematics apparoch called? What does it assume? What is a clade? For this reason what is it known as? What is cladistics? Based on? What is it different from? What deos ti focus on? Rathe than> what does it place importance on? What does it use? Whatd oes it use to generate dendograms oc aldogrmas? Whatd o they represent? Because? What does it make no distinction between?
Natural and artifical selection
What is natural selection a mechanism for? Those organisms adapted are likely to what? and do what? via? In this case what does the selecting? What happens in artificla selection? What is the same? Are cattle domestic? What did humans select them for? What are there now? What do some have and live where? What do the main breeds have? What did we repeatedl select? Allow them to what? what did humans artificially select? What do we still practice? What is measured? What is tested? What need to be kept? Used to? what are some elite cows given? To do what? how are the eggs fertilised? Implanted where? What could trhese embryos also? What happens in this way?
What are most wild spcies of wheat? What can they undergo? Meaning? What uis modern wehat? Why are the cells bigger? What has genetic analysis shown? Where has each come from? What can wheats be? Wher can wheat grow? What do breeders carry out? To improe? What characteristic do they want?