Control and punishment #9

  • Created by: Mui
  • Created on: 11-04-13 23:37

Crime Prevention

SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION - Pre emptive approach which relies on reducing opportunities for crime such as security guards and locking doors (target hardening measures)

By increasing risks and reducing rewards it aims to deter criminals, this links with the rational choice theory - the theory that criminals weigh risks and act on them

HOWEVER SCP may simply move crime also it almost ignores non rational criminals such as drug dealers or violent criminal

ENVIROMENTAL CRIME PREVENTION - 'broken windows' such as graffiti and begging leads to a spiral of decline of that area, as the community feels intimidated and poweless... enviromental stratergy means halting area decline

COMMUNITY CRIME PREVENTION - emphasis on dealing with social conditions such as unemployment to help the disadvantaged 

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Detterence - preventing future offenses through fear

Rehabilitation - reforming the offenders

Incapacitation - imprisonment or execution

Retribution - an eye for an eye 

DURKHEIM - punishments upholds social solidarity and reinforces values -> 2 type of justice

1. Retributive - collective conscience means a strong punishment e.g. paedophilia

2. Restitutive - repairing damage of crime through compensation 

MARXISM - punishment defends ruling class propertly against lower class, time is money and offenders ultimately pay by doing time

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Trends in punishment

Prisons were the precursor to the main punishment in pre-industrial times e.g. execution, inprisonment nowadays is seen as a high punishment although reoffending rates in the West are high

Prison populations are on a rise as politicians call for harsher punishments, ethnic minorities are over represented as are male working classes

Transcarceration is constantly moving people within prison like insititutions e.g. young offenders institution

Theres been an increase in curfews, tagging and community service possibly due to the over population of prisons

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Victims and victomology

Victims are those who suffered harm due to violation of laws

Positivist victomology - seeks to find correlations and characteristics of victims such as

1. Victim proneness - their differences to non victims e.g. intelligence

2. Victim precipitation - Wolfgang found 25% of 600 homicides the victim triggering the events

Critical victomology - structural factors e.g. patriarchy, some demographics are at a higher risk of victimisation <- that being whether the state applies the label of victim to them 

PATTERNS - 4% of populations are victims of 44% of all time, the poor are likelier to be victims, the young are more vulnerable to assault and theft, minority groups are at a greater risk of being victims, males likelier to be victims of violence whilst women are likelier to be victims of sexual violence

Crime creates indirect victims e.g. friends of victim, victims may suffer further victimisation e.g. criminal justice system and ****, crime may create irrational fears e.g. women afraid to go out at night yet young men are more at risk 

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