Contraception and S.T.D's

different types of contraception and S.T.D's

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Male Condom

  • 98% effective (if used according to instructions)
  • made of very thin latex or polyurethane.
  • it is put over erect penis and stops sperm entering ******

ADVANTAGES -

  • sold widely, widely avaliable
  • can protect both persons from sexually transmitted infections
  • no medical side effects

DISADVANTAGES-

  • putting on can interrupt sex
  • can slip off or split
  • man needs to withdraw as soon as ***********
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Female Condom

  • 95% effective
  • soft, thin polyurethane sheath loosely lines ****** and covers area just outside and stops sperm from entering

ADVANTAGES

  • can be put on any time before sex
  • can protect both persons from sexually transmitted infections
  • no medical side effects

DISADVANTAGES

  • putting on can interrupt sex
  • need to make sure penis enters the condom and not between the ****** and the condom
  • may get pushed into ******
  • not as widely avaliable as male condom
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Diaphragm (cap)

  • 92-96% effective
  • a flexible latex or silicone device
  • it is used with spermicide
  • it is placed into ****** to cover cervix
  • stops sperm from entering and meeting an egg

ADVANTAGES

  • can be put on any time before sex
  • only have to use it when having sex
  • no serious health risks

DISADVANTAGES

  • extra spermicide is needed if having sex again
  • can take time to learn how to use properly
  • needs to be correct size and needs replaced if you lose/gain more the 3kg, have a baby, miscarriage or aborition
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Combined Pill

  • over 99% effective
  • contains two hormones- oestrogen and progestogen
  • stops ovulation, thickens cervical mucus and thins lining of uterus

ADVANTAGES

  • often reduces bleeding, period pain and premenstrual symptons
  • protects against cancer of the ovary, uterus and colon and protects against some pelvic infections
  • when use is stopped fertility returns to normal

DISADVANTAGES

  • not suitable for very overweight or smokers older than 35
  • very low risk of serious side effects of blood clots, breast cancer and cervical cancer
  • temporary side effects such as head aches, nausea, mood changes
  • some medicines, missing pills, vomitting can make it less effective
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Intrauterine Device (IUD) - The Coil

  • 99% effective
  • small plastic device put into uterus
  • stops sperm reaching egg and may also stop implantation of fertilised egg

ADVANTAGES

  • works as soon as its put in
  • can stay in 5-10 years depending on type but can be removed at any time
  • when its removed fertility returns to normal
  • not affected by other medicines

DISADVANTAGES

  • periods may be longer, heavier and/or more painful
  • very small chance of infection during first 20 days after insertion
  • very small increased risk of ectopic pregnancy if coil fails.
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Implant

  • over 99% effective
  • small flexible rod placed under skin of upper arm
  • releases hormone- progestogen
  • stops ovulation, thickens cervical mucus and thins lining of uterus

ADVANTAGES

  • works for 3 years but can be taken out earlier
  • when removed fertility returns to normal

DISADVANTAGES

  • periods may stop, be irregular or longer
  • acne may occur
  • requires small procedure to fit and remove
  • tenderness, swelling and some bruising may occur
  • some medicines may prevent it from working
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Sexually Transmitted Infections

Reasons to have a check up:

  • will help prevent spread of STI's
  • not everyone develops symptons
  • if not treated early, can cause pernament damage to health
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What to look for...

Women

  • discharge from ****** or ****
  • pain/stinging when passing urine
  • itchiness, soreness or redness around ***** or ****
  • swelling of *****
  • blisters, ulcers or warts around genital area or mouth
  • sore throat (after oral sex)
  • bleeding after sex
  • abdominal pain
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What to look for...

Men:

  • discharge or pus from tip of penis or ****
  • pain or burning feeling when passing urine
  • itchiness, soreness or redness around the penis or under foreskin
  • blisters, ulcers or warts around genital area or mouth
  • sore throat (after oral sex)
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Treatment and Prevention

Treatment:

  • most easy to treat
  • treatment is different for each infection
  • can include lotions, tablets or injections
  • important to complete course

Prevention:

  • use condom every time having sex
  • limit number of sexual partners
  • have regular check ups
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Common STI's

Chlamydia:

  • one of most common STI's
  • symptons include, discharge or stinging when passing urine
  • often no symptons
  • if left untreated can lead to infertility

Gonorrhoea

  • may cause discharge from ******, penis or rectum, pain when passing urine or sore throat
  • may be no signs- espically when infection is in throat or rectum
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Common STI's

Genital Herpes:

  • caused by a virus
  • two typesof virus- one causes sores around mouth and nose, the other causes sore around genital area.
  • both passed by oral, vaginal or anal sex
  • very small risk of passing virus when no sores are present

HIV:

  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus is found in blood, ***** and vaginal fluids
  • passed on through unprotected penetrative sex, sharing of needles, from mother to baby before or during birth or by breastfeeding
  • all pregnant women in NI are routinely tested antenatally for HIV
  • discharge or broken skin around genital areamake it easier for virus to pass
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Common STI's

Syphilis:

  • spread during sex (including oral sex)
  • half of thgose infected show no symptons
  • painless but infective sores may appear
  • can be easily diagnosed and treated with anitbiotics
  • if left untreated can cause serious health problems
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