contempary debates

the behavioural approach

the behavioural approach - using conditioning techniques to control the behaviour of children

+

vunerable children- intergrate into society

token economy- provides an incentive to continue good behaviour

filcheck et al (2004) found that token economy works in school (however consistency)

-

expect rewards for everything

peer groups may later undo the work

may lead to labelling in schools

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cognitive

the cognitive approach- the reliability of eye witness testimony

ethical issue- juries are persauded by eyewitness testimony even through this may lead to wrongful conviction

reserach shows it is unreliable when-

memory is reconstructed using schemas and stereotypes (loftus and palmer (1974))

anxiety causes repression and forgetting

eyewitnesses and children (ceci and friedman 2000 - kids wanted to please adults)

eye witnesses are asked misleading questions (l+f 1964)

however is it reliable when...

research is conducted in a natural environment

appropriate questioning techniques are used - fisher et al (1990) cognitive interveiwing

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biological

the biological approach- the thics of neuroscience

criminal behaviour (raine et al) 1997

+ brain deficiencies could be identified in childhood (early intervention) - challenges notion of free will - labelling

neuromarketing (mclure et al) (2004) there are changes in brain activity of consumers when they are choosing a product (coca-cola) activiating areas of the brain involved in emotion and memory

+ benefits to marketers and adverstisers in understanding which products are desired + benefits consumers through accurately targeted marketing thereby speeding up decision making- ownership and use of data gathered

alzheimers ww-adni identification of areas of the brain affected by alzheimers

+ progression of finding cure - need to study people with the condition (concent)

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psychodynamic

psychodynamic- the mother as primary caregiver

+ bowlby - monotropy with mother provides template for later in life- healthy development, bowlbly- maternal deprivation hypothesis stresses negative outcomes if bond is broken or not formed (study support- 44 juivenile theives (1944) ,evolution- higfh investiment in infant prior and after birth and being provider of food makes mum best, ethics- supports mum stay at home, economic implication- timely for post war government, prevent investiment in childcare, social implication- mother gets custody 99% of time, bowlby- primary caregiver does not have to be mother.

- bowlby- primary caregiver does not have to be mother, cassidy (1999) attatchment hierachy states that in absence of preferred attatchment figure, others can give comfort. study support- shaffer and emerson (1964) found infants form multiple attatchements. evolutions- infant has better chance of survival with muliple caregivers- study support (medhan (2005) showed that amongst the aka people infants have 20 caregivers. ethics- gender equality, economic- supports mothers right to work, social- challanges tradition values. 

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positive

positive approach- relevance of positive psychology in todays society

+ research shows people are making changes to improve physical health so why not mental health, postitive psychology advocates the importance of small groups of close friends (miers and diener (1995), can also help to improve physical health too, study- schou et al (2005) found that optimistic cancer sufferers were better able to fight the disease, mindfullness practice in schools is an ethical way to improve well being in children- study- johnson (2010) proved that boys trained in mindfullness showed greater well being. 

- self report techniques used to measure happiness can be questionned on reliabilty, emphasis on friendships today is on quantity not quality- facebook (2013) average uk friends 130, positive thinking does not always lead to greater happiness and well-being. study- segerstrom and sephton (2010) revealed that some optimistic law students had lower immune functioning, the effects of nurturing optimism in adults is yet to be studies through a large scale intervention so there is no convincing evidence that it will have any impact.

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