Consolidation of power

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  • Created by: Muy
  • Created on: 22-04-13 14:19

Coming to power

1919 German Workers Part was established with Hitler becoming leader the following year and renamed National Socialists... In 1923 this part was banned and he was imprisoned after the Beer Hall Pustch

Nazis gain 3% of vote in 1928 Reichstag elections, this went up to 18% in 1930 becoming the second largest party, the following elections in 1932 Nazis gained 37% of vote 

Hitler appointed chancellor in 1933

Weimar republic was the new state following the defeat of Germany in WW1... Governments were often weak and faced many problems

After the Wall Street Crash in 1929, German economy sank by 40% and 33% unemployment, von Papen didn't respond effectively

Great depressions created desperation, Nazis message appealed and exploited peoples fear through propaganda

Hitler refused to collaborate or take minor roles such as vice chancellor, Hindenberg was suspicious but the elite believes he'd defend Germany against communism

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Nazi Ideology

It appealed to patriotic Germans, and was very broad and vague however it offered solutions and scapegoats - Nationalism and Socialism elemements, Partys 25 Point Programme 1920

Social darwinist outlook, the idea Aryan race was superior

His vision was Volsgemeinschaft, founded on racial unity, this community would exclude racially inferior people

Quasi-scientific feature, science of Eugenics - advocating action on genitically unfit and a threat to the master race 

Charismatic leadership, a supreme leader, the Fuhrer myth... He combined the roles of Chancellor and President

It was anti modern, anti capitalist, anti democratic, anti comunist, it reverred traditional German values of family faith and nation

Rosenberg came with the idea of Lebensraum and Autarky

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Creating a dictatorship

Initially, only 3/12 of the cabinet were Nazis

'Legal revolution' enabled Hitler to destroy democracy, and establish autocratic powers

Reichstag Fire in 1933 parliamentary building was blamed on KPD Communists, Hitler argued it was an attempt to destroy Germany

Aftermath was The Reichstag Fire Decree in 1933, President issued a decree removing civil rights such as freedom of assembly, free speech... Nazis could now harass opponents

KPD was banned

1933 elections characterised by Nazi violence, SA and storm troopers...

Required a majority to change German consitution, was able to aquire support of Catholic Party after 'Concordat' and pass The Enabling Act, opponents were prevented from voting

Enabling act meant Hitler could pass decrees without Reichstag approval, so SPD/KPD banned, Conservatives/liberals dissolved, Nationalist party merged w/ Nazis, 'Law Against Formation of New Parties' passed

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Terror and opposition

Nazis used violenced which was legally authorised to smash left wing opponents

Goering the Prussian Minister of the Interior instructed police to co-operate w/ Nazis, to shoot communists, 50,000 auxilary police attacked opponents

^ 100,000 political opponenets imprisoned, ceoncentration camps established, left wing newspaper closed

1933/1934 was essentially a coalitions of Nazis and Conservatives, Hitler need conservative elitist support so co-operated with these forces in governments, civil service and army

SA violent tactics undermined Hitlers image, Ernst Rohm wanted Hitlers government to create a social revolution... The SA to merge with German Army to create 'Peoples Army'

^ Hitler refused this as he required support of Army leadership who were mostly elites

SA radicals saw Rohm as a rival to Hitler as party leader and Himmler exploited this to advance his own position

Night of the long knives, on 1934 Hitler acted to ensure conservative support, SS were arrested, Rohm murdered, ex chancellor von Schleicher murdered

^ removed internal threats, win over powerful conservative critics, Wehrmacht swore oath of allieigance to Hitler as commander in chief of armed forces, saved Germany from Rohm

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Appearing moderate

To consolidate power, they worked with others... They had to be perceived as moderates due to their alliances

Conservatives - Hindenberg issued Reichstag Fire Decree, von Papen/Hindenberg supported the Enabling Act, von Papen gave important cabinet posts to Nazis, conservatives wanted Nazis to crush the left, leading industrialists bankrolled Nazis (3 million reichsmark), Rohms murder ensured Hitlers leadership

Churches - opposed Christianity but acknowledged its importance to Germans, Hitler claimed to admire the work of Christians after gaining Chancellor position, Postdam Day included Protestant sermon, Concordat signed between Catholic which meant they wouldnt interfere with religious freedom of Catholic Church and they agreed to stay out of politics

Hes a paigon tho, as Hitler eventually persecuted Catholic priests and banned Catholic youth groups

Goebbels establied Ministry of Propaganda, it portrayed Hitler as saviour, Potsdam Day - a propaganda day 'day of national unity' was held and Hidenberg/Hitler appeared in front of large crowds to display fascist/conservative unity

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Gained control of civil service, the media, Trade Union movement - this was co-ordination of Gleichschaltung (bring into line) or in other terms Nazification

Reichstag Fire Decree issued under Article 47 of the Constitution giving Nazis control of media, suspend basic rights and arrest opponents

Enabling act gave Hitler dictatorial power, a state of emergency

April 33 - Restoration of the Proffessional Civil Service - this law meant the removal of Jews/political opponenets from civil service

May 33 - Trade Union replaced by German Labour Front (DAF)

October 33 - The Editors Law - journalists could be punished for anything that 'calculated to weaken the strength of the Reich' ... basically censorship

January 34 - 'Reconstruction of the State' -  Nazi takeover of local governments, abolishment of regional parliaments

Obstacles to Hitlers powers were removed, Cabinet authorised 'Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich', Hitler could now exercise the power of presidents and chancellor after Hindenbergs death - He was now FUHRER

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