Consolidation of Power 1949-53

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Received 41% of total state budget.

Size reduced to 3.5 million in 1950 but by 1953 still 800,000 new conscripts every year.

Used for propoganda and in mythology eg in the Korean War they claimed to fight as 'voluntary troops' against the Western countries.

Job to spread communism to the countryside. Demobilised units did public work projects eg the First Field Army became the Production and Construction Army.

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Mass Party Membership

Party memberhsip October 1949 4,448,000 increased to 5,831,604 in December 1950. Country of 500 million so membership still kept for minority who proved themselves.

Party Cadres in all levels of government/adminsitration/legal sysem and education and PLA. Job to ensure armed forces etc living in line with political direction of state. Had a privileged lifestyle.

Danwei work units at low level which every employed Chinese citizen had to join, or they would come under surveillance of residents committee. Issued permits to travel/marry/change employment etc. 

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Mao's Solutions

Regulated inflation by increasing taxes and introducting Renminbi as new currency. All foreign assets were confiscated, banks were nationalised and workers joined work units.

Struggle meetings so as to ensure indoctrination of population. Policies were chosen to not alienate middle-class. Government was spilt into 3 main sections: Communist party, state bureacracy, PLA. Leading members of Communist Party eg Deng Xiaoping had key roles in the country.

Jobs were made available to the middle-class as government needed support of 'national bourgeoisie' to move to Communism.

Iron Rice Bowl scheme incited commitment as party members/military/officials were guaranteed employment/income for life. 

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Mass Campaigns

Resist America and aid Korea- Foreigners were declared enemies of the PRC. Westerners persectued and missionaries arrested. Christian churches closed. Radios and weapons confiscated. People were accused of being spies for foreigners.

Suppression of Counter Revolutionaries- Shanghai evidence against 40,000 people.Guangdong evidence against 52,620 'bandits'.  28,332 people were executed in public for maximum impact. Mao had police progress reports sent directly to him. 

Three Antis Campaign- Mass meetings+managers/officials denounced/humiliated. Crushed corruption eg bribery/influence and reminded officials of dangers of independent thinking.

Five Antis Campaign-Stimulate economy by attacking sabotage, tax evasion, bribery, fraud, theft. Workers' organisations to investigate employers. Group criticisms for employers to confess crimes/ denounce others. 3000 mass meetings in February 1952. 2-3 million committed suicide. 

Purge of CPC eg Gao Gang (suicide) and Rao Rushi (imprisoned) criticised for 'independent kingdoms'. Propoganda to shame targets. Labour camps. Work units/neighbourhood committees. Prostitutes sent to re-education, drug dealers shot. People encouraged to smoke. Summer 1950 over 15s required permits, had informing system eg children on parents, workers on friends.

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Social Policies

Women- Represented in government (Mao ordered 25% of government must be women); ban on concubinage;easier divorce; greater educational opportunities; women to share heavy manual labour (while men fought against GMD).

Education- Universities remodelled to focus on technology/scientific subjects. Imperial entrance exams and 'key schools' with best teachers. Education increased eg 1956 50% children 7-16 in full time education to 96% in 1976.

Health- Emphasis on prevention through 'patriotic health movements'. Imrproved death rates. Education on drinking water and correct disposal of waste to prevent diseases eg cholera. 3-tier health care system eg in villages paramedics worked at health centres, towns had beds for patients and county hospitals. Only accounted for 1.3% of state investment in 1952.

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