Consolidation of power

Consolidation of power

Became king England after  ictory against Richard 111 battle Bosworth 22nd august 1485

terminated plantagent rule and new establishment Tudor dynasty 

HAD WEAK CLAIM THOUGH

-HAD MANY ENEMIES

-DESCENDED THROUGH FEMALE LINE-LADY MARGARET BEUAFORT MOTHERS DAD JOHN GAUNT BORN ILLGEGITMATE 

JOHN GAUNT EDWARDS 111S THIRD SON-

HE THE ONLY LANCASTRIAN CLAIMANT 

-LIVED IN EXILE SIMCE 14 YRS OLD SO NOT ALOT NEW HIM ETC 

SO HAS TO CONSOLIDATE POWER AND ESTABLISH HIMSELF WELL

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CONSOLIDATION OF POWER

Why Richard unpopular?

usurpation 1483 destroyed unity house York, a lot rebellions,suspicious dissapreance of his nephews in tower 

LORD THOMAS STANLEY-STEPFATHER

helped him win battle after initially not sure who's side

rewarded earl of derby and exercise power northwest England 

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HENRYS CHARACTER AND AIMS

not brought up to rule

why?1471 when 14 fled to France living as fugitive in duchy of Brittany 

'why?when Edward v1 regained power for house York in battle tewkesbury where a lot Henry's Lancastrian relative dead or executed

when throne aware had to consolidate power 

HOW HENRY CONSILIDATED POWER 

-dated reign from 21 August 1485 day before battle so anyone fought on yorkist side called traitor 

-publically rewarded key supporters 

-arranged supporters to detain Elizabeth of York Edward v1 daughter and earl of Warwick as had good claim to throne 

-appointed key people to council and household 

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HENRYS AIMS

-make sure Reginald Gary chancellor of duchy of Lancaster and sir William Stanley chamberlain of household 

EARL OF WARWICK-SON duke clarende,Edwards v1 brother 

tower London 1485 and plotted with perkin warbeck 1499 and beheaded

SIR WILLIAM STANLEY-brother of Thomas Stanley and henrys step uncle rewarded lord chamberlain after battle 

gave him political influence and he could develop estate in chesire

later accused treason 

-arrange coronation 30 October before meeting parliament 7 nov SHOWED RIGHT TO THRONE BASED ON HEREDITORY RIGHT NOT JUST. ECAUSE PARLIAMENT SANCTOONED IT 

-parliament acts of attainder done-against torkists who fought bosworth

why-property went to crow and they granted tonnage and poundage for life

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Henrys aims

-Married Elizabeth of York despite previously detaining her 

daughter Edward 1v jan 1486

he did this after consolidating power as didn't look like crown due to wife's marriage 

made Tudor rose 

-sep 1489 birth son Arthur 

HOW THIS HELPED ESTABLISH TUDOR DYNASTY

not huge amount-a lot yorkists unhappy with marriage and thought him a usurper

other claimants to throne like earl warwick

quite a lot threats-eg.pretneders of neohews in tower edward v or Richard , Margaret of burgundy Ed v1 and Richard 111 sister  and she was duchess of burgundy and had funds enabling her to encourage the yorkist claimants 

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Rebellions

VISCOUNT LOVELL AND THE STAFFORDS 1486

led by-FRANCIS VISCOUNT LOVELL AND HUMPHREY STAFFORD 

lovell Richard supporter 

lovell raised one in north riding of yorkshire 

stafford tried raise forces against Henry in mid;ands 

Lovell espies kings forces Stafford executed and brother Thomas pardoned 

overall easily suppressed 

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Lambert and Simnel and rebellion of earl Lincoln

Yorkist rebels knew needed knew strategy 

needed someone to use as a 'yorkist prince' and financial support for military army 

used LAMBERT SIMNEL AS 'EARL OF WARWICK'-who was impriosned by Henry and crowned king Ireland 1487

john de la pole put Plan together earl of Lincoln 

HOW HENRY REPSONDED 

-EXHIBITED REAL ERAL WARWICK 

'Lincoln joined love;l at Margaret of burgundy's court in Netherlands and persuaded her to get mercenaries to invade England 

henry reinstated earl Northumberland to power in northern despite him initially leading Richard 11 army in battle 

ensured Howard family had no intention joining conspiracy as Northumberland their descnedant

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Lambert etc

reinforced coastal defences east s glia 

BUT EEBELS LANDED CUMBERLAND TO GET SUPPORT IN RICHARDS SUPPORTIVE LAND 

BUT GENTRY OF NORTH RIDING DUDNT COMMIT THEMSELVES TO THEM 

BATTLE IF STOKE FIELD 1487

TWO ARMIES MET EAST STOKE NITTINGHAMSHIRE 

'HE RY UNCONFIDENT 

BUT ARMY EFFECTED UNDER ERAL OXFORD-LINCOLN KILLED 

WHY THIS WIN SIGNIFICANT?

position safer,overcame by skills military leadership landowners etc 

not that harsh to those opposing him and developed policy BONDS OF GOOD BEHAVOUR-ensured landlord well behaved or faced financial ruin

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Perkin and warbeck imposture

Warbeck-cloth trader from Flanders and irritant to Henry over 8 years -during claimed to be Richard duke of York and gathered patronage from foreign rulers made him a potentially serious threat 

WHAT HAPPENED 

1491 impersonated Richard doy Ireland 

how-after being forced from France fled to maragret of burgundy and trained as yorkist prince and draw eng courtiers into his conspiracies 

when he landed in England 1495 Henry warned by sir Robert Clifford, a royal agent, and warbeck quickly defeated and fled James 1v of Scotland 

ALTHOUGH IT COULD HAVE STILL BEEN AN ISSUE AS SIR WILLIAM STANLEY CONSPIRATORS ACCUMPLICE HARDED ROYAL HOUSEHOLD AND COULD HAVE HLPED 

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Perkin warbeck

1496 small Scot force crossed borde Ron warbeck behalf but then retracted 

James accosted Henrys offer to marry his daughter Margaret  so no longer support warbeck

final attempt or exploit throne-tried to exploit uncertainties caused by Cornish rebellion 1497 but forces crushed and he surrendered 

Henry out him in court then to tower after trying abscond 

tried to esa;e with ERAL fo Warwick-both accused treason and executed 

THIS WAS CONVINIENT FOR HENRY AS COULD GET RID OF EARL WARWICK 

had big yorkist claimant to throne but he was considerably innocent victim as only 10 at battle Bosworth spent most life in confinement until. Death 1499

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Edmund de la pole earl of Suffolk and Richard de l

Fled to Suffolk 1498  returned but then fled again 1501 and seemed Enugu emperor Maximilian 

'Suffolk safe as long as Margaret burgundy opposed to Henry v11 

BUT TRATT WINDSOR 1506 FRIDNLER REALTIONS MAXIMILLIAN GAVE UP SUFFOLK

PUT IN TOWER 

HENRY V111 HAD HIM EXECUTED TREASON 1513 

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HENRYS GOVERNMENT

THE COUNCIL

THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS 

-ADVISE HENRY

-ADMINISTER REALM ON KINGS BEHALF 

-MAKE LEGAL JUDGEMENTS 

THREE MAIN TYPES OF COUNCILLORS 

MEMBER OF NOBILITY-LORD DAUBENEY

CHURCHMEN-JOHN MORTON GOOD ADMINISTRATORS 

LAYMEN-GENTRY OR LAWYERS-SKILLED ADMINISTRATORS EG SIR REGINALD. FAY AND EDMUND DUDLEY 

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The council

JOHN MORTON

chirch,an and lawyer worked against Richard 111 promoted by Henry archbishop Canterbury 1486 and cardinal 1493

SIR REGINALD BRAY

faithful servant of Henrys helped raise funds for battle 

title CHNACELLOR OF DUCHY OF LANCASTER-BODY OF PROPERTYBELONGED KING HUT FOR ALLY DUKES  GRANTED POSTSTIP S WITHIN DUCHY TO TRUSTED SERVANTS 

'MARGARET BEAUFORT 

married Edmund Tudor 1455 gave birth Henry age 14 third husband lord Thomas Stanley important adviser to Henry large land Northamptonshire 

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The council

 no established rules 

core membership and dearl with key administrative concerns when king not present 

e.g bray and Dudley 

memebers met separately or two meetings same time etc 

'importance of councillors depend on Dudley etc and the council learned 

THE GREAT COUNCIL-GATHERIMG OF HOUSE LORDS WITHOUT COMMONS 
occasional not per,sent body only met 5 times during reign issues with war or rebellion for. Actionable security 

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The council

THE COUNCIL LEARNED 

councils main offshoot developed second half Reign initially under brays leadership 

met duchy Lancaster 

To maintain kings revenue and exploit prerogative rights-rights monarch exercise without parliament consent - 

made system of bo de and recognizability cues work effectively 

modern historian Thomas penn argued council leanred caused fear and frustration as bypassed legal system 

BUT WAS EXPRESSION OF KINGS WILL AND SO IMPORTANT FOR HIM TO MAINATIN HIS AUTHORITY

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The council

Brays associate in council learned RCIHARD EMPSON A BUREAUCRAT JAD RITHLESS APRACH THAT DEFINED COUNCIL LEARNED 

BRAYS DEATH 1503-EMPOSN JOINED BY EDMUND DUDLEY 

THEY EXTRACTED MOMEY FROM KINGS FINANCES TO FINE ART 

CREATED ENEMIES LIKE THOMAS LOVELL

empson etc gotten rid of after Henrys death  and brought rejoicing in streets showed how feared their finically policies were 

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The council

SIR RICHARD EMPOSN 1450-1510

MEMBER KINGS COUNCIL FROM 1494 later chaired council learned 

arrested after Henrys death and charged treason and executed 

EDMUND DUDLEY 1462-1510

PROMINET AFTER DEATH OF BRAY

role to exploit financial opportunities and consequently made a lot enemies 

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Court and household

Tudors relied heavily on royal court was centre of government

henry influenced by courts in burgundy and France 

wealthy displayed power royal court had to be magnificent 

always with king and focus of personal monarchy and place where power of <onarch demonstrated to all courtiers 

rewards distributed to courtiers 

fright to revive free food  and could gain support of king 

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Court

Levels to court

-household proper-looked after king guests arc and provided catering etc

-chamber-presided over by lord chamberlain-experinced nobleman member of council and personal fiend to king had political power- chmabetlain and courtiers very influential 

1495 lord chamberlain lord William Stanley involved treasonable plot qith perkin warbeck so Henry REMODELLED CHMABER CREATED NEW PRIVY CHMABER WHERE AMONGTS MOST INTIMATE SERVANTS 

HARDER FOR PEOPLE GAIN HIS SUPPORT 

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Parliament

Comprising house lords and commons but only met occasionally so not central to gov 

2 main functions 

1-pass laws 2-grant taxation to crown 

also had subsidiary function where local issues and grievances passed to kings officials by local members parliament 

only king called parliament and called total 7 in reign 5 in first years reign 

initially concerned with national security issues and rarising revenue e.g acts of attainder -decalred individuals guilty without them going through trial if dead property would be forfeit to the crown 

fisrt parliament granted tonnage and poundage -customs revenue-

other parliaments granted extraordinary revenue to enable king wage war

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Parliament

most Common form extraordinary revenue-fifteenths and tenths-stnadard form taxation paid by towns and boroughs to crowns 

fractional taxes of fifteenths an tenths made 1487 1489 etc yielded 203,00 pounds 

final parliament 1504 limited demand for er 

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Domestic policy -justice and maintenance of order

King had to maintain law and order as could lead to rebellions 

the number of magnates-great nobles- reduced during wor and lands give to crown 

most magnate Control north of England like to Stanley's and earl Northumberland 

1489 death of these meant Henry released yorkist earl of Surrey from tower  to rule north. -high risk as a Richard supporter  but he proved his loyalty

elsehwere in country relied on earl oxford lord daub he et. Who didn't have a lot faith in so used spies and imposed bonds and recognizances 

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Jps

Maintained order at local level in countryside

met 4x year administer justice through quarter sessions 

most local gentry-done by sense of duty or thought would lead to increase in local prestige 

acts parliament passed to increase responsibilities 

responsible for-tax assessments alehouse regulations and law and order 

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Bonds and recognizances

How Henry mainly restored law and order 

some genuine debt owed and some purely political'

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Domestic policy-improving royal finances

Crown lands 

profits from feudal dues and exercise of royal prerogative 

customs revenue 

pensions from other powers 

profits of justice 

extraordinary revenue '

these enabled a lot money left Henry v111

CROWN LANDS -Henry biggest land owner and had rental income 

when initially reigned income dropped £12000 per year as money was administered via ineffective court if exchequer 

but 1492 he decide go back to how Edwards system ran-administration through chamber where policies made-end reign £42000 year -thanks to Thomas lovell

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Profits from feudal dues and exercise of royal pre

Increased profits from wardship-ENBALED CROWN GET MONEY FROM PROPERTY HELD BY MINOR 

PARLIAMENT GRANTED FEUDAL AID-RIGHT WHERE CFOSN IMPE TAX ON TENANTS FOR KNIGHTING OF ELDEST SON THE MARRIAGE OF ELDEST DAUGHTER KT RANSOM A LORD  1504

STATUE OF USES 1489 MENAT NO WAY GETTING OUT OF IT-LAW TOMPREVENT LANDED PROPERTY TURNED TO TRUSTS WICH WOULD HAVE  AVOIDED TAX

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Other sources of revenue

CUSTOMS REVENUE-TONNAGE AND OUNDAGE increase in rev from £34000-38000

PENSIONS FROM OTHER POWERS-treaty of estaples 1492 french agreed pay Henry 5000 per annum

PROFITS OF JUSTICE-fines and bonds 

EXTRAORDINARY REVENUE-he revived over 400,000 

but this provoke rebellion 1489 and 1497 and Henry had to stop parliament using method to raise money 

e.g.1489 parliament 75000 and convocation of Canterbury 25000

total 300000 jewels and 10000 cash

estimated 1,800.000

alot of victims to policies landowners-he would need their support if his throne threatened 

but policies they didn't like

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