Consequences of the Development Gap

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impacts on women in uganda

  • in uganda the ratio of boys to girls in a.) Primary school = 1:1   b.) by age 11 = 1:2   c.) by age 16 = 1:10
  • girls often marry at the age of 13 or 15 and have their first child by the age of 16 - this contributes to the high fertility rate in the country
  • women rarely own their own land and are unable to control how much they earn
  • most returnto work days after child birth so maternal mortality is high - leading to an increase in orphans 
  • this means unhealthy mothers have unhealthy children - increasing infant mortality
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Give a girl education up to the age of 14 and...

a.) they do not get married till later and sothe fertility rate drops

b.) the number ofwomen in forced marriages and abusive relationships drop as women choose their own partner

c.) they understand how to look after themselves and their children better so IMR drops and disease prevalance falls 

d.) they are ableto earn just as much as men therefore benefitting the economy 

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Debt Relief in Uganda

  • since in debt relief in 2000 Uganda's HDI has risen from 0.420 to 0.505
  • free primary schooling has been introduced and over 90% of girls and boys now go to school up until the age of 11
  • 2.2 million now have access to clean water but still women and girls are forced to collect this
  • it had helped... but there is still a long way to go...
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Impacts of the development gap on women

  • 64% of illiterate adults are women
  • 57% of children who receive no education are girls
  • in LDCs, 1 in 17 women die in childbirth
  • women usually occupy low-status jobs and receive lower income
  • they have limited participation in politics as they are often disciminated against with new laws etc. 
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CARE - women

  • face of poverty is women
  • women do 2/3rds of the worlds work, but only earn 10% of the worlds income
  • 1.4 billion living on $1 aday or less, and 70% are women
  • 900 million illiterate adults  - 2/3rds are women
  • 1/2 of worlds food produced/grown by women, but they only own 1% of the land- evidently working for somebody else 
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'I dare you' video - words related to women...

  • tragedy, commodity
  • pity, fatigue, dismissal
  • 'i am the answer'
  • burden 
  • statistic
  • 'a promise you won't keep'
  • object
  • child bride
  • 10% more girls in education, 3% growth in economy
  • if girl goes to school for 7 years, will marry 4 years later and have 2.2 fewer children - important in lowering birth rates
  • 43% less malnutrition if educated girls
  • women reinvest 90% of earnings into their failiy - men only 35% 
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'The Girl Effect' video

  • 50 million girls in poverty 
  • needs to be a sustained change
  • change starts at the age of 12 - stay in education!!!!!!
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Impact on Caste Divisions

What is a caste?

  • a caste system is a type of social structure which divides people on the basis of inherited social status
  • although many societies could be described in this way, within a caste system, people are rigidly expected to marry and interact with people of the same social class
  • it determines the jobs they will do for life and often they are not able to move to another caste 
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India's Caste System

  • This system is found widely amongst Hindus
  • born into a family that is fixed to a certain class
  • believe you can do no other job than what your caste dictates
  • huge discrimination amongst the different castes

BHRAMIN: Priests, Academics (religious leaders)

KSHATRYIA: Warriors, Kings (politicians, those in power, military leaders)

VAISHYA: Merchants, Landowners (business owners, farm owners)

SUDRA: Commoners, Peasants, Servants (not paid very much)

UNTOUCHABLES: Outcast-out of caste, street sweepers, latrine cleaners (burn bodies)

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The 'untouchables'/ Dalits

  • these are the lowest caste system in India (16% of population)
  • they do the most unhealthy,  unpleasant and polluting jobs because they feel they have to 
  • this group suffer  from poverty, social segregation and discrimination more than anyother caste
  • they have to live in separate villages, worship in seperate temples and drink from alternative sources of water
  • Dalit children today still sit at the back of the classroom, however only 3% complete primary education
  • these is discrimination within this caste - those doing the worst of the worse are outcasted again
  • 200 million in India; 1 in 6
  • 2000: over 25,000 crimes committed against them
  • 2 houses torched to the ground daily
  • 3 women ***** daily
  • 2 murdered daily
  • isolated 
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Caste system today

  • the caste system is not as evident today due to increased urbanisation of all groups
  • some Dalits are now realising theycan rise through the caste system e.g. President Narayana was Dalit
  • there are 4 'newer' castes:

- forward caste (25% -most advantaged of Indians

- scheduled castes (16%) - Dalits

- scheduled tribes (7%)- rural tribal groups

- backward castes (52%) - others

The government now claims to possitively discriminate the most disadvantaged in terms of education and jobs e.g. Dalits and benefitting

However forward castes protect about this as they think this is unfair 

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What is the difference?

Race - a way to categorise people into  groups based on their appearance (skin colour) and behaviour e.g. White, Black, African-American

Ethnicity - people who identify with each other through common heritage, language and culture e.g. British

Religion - the shared belief and cultural systems that relate humans to spirituality. People follow shared morals, ethics and lifestyles

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South Africa and Apartheid

  • Pretoria, Bloemfontein and Cape Town are all considered capitals of the country
  • Johannesburg is the largest city
  • population = 50.5 million 
  • 80% are Black - most dominent, but not dominating
  • 9% are white
  • 9% are coloured
  • 2% are asian
  • It is Africa's richest country with a GDP/capita of $11,440
  • has some of the world's largest reserves of gold and diamonds 
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Afrikaans word that means 'segregation'.

Political and legal system enforced by a White government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994. 

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History of South Africa

  • the Dutch and British both colonised parts of South Africa during the 1800s
  • the Afrikaners (white South Africans) felt like a largely superior race and that racial purity was essential. Cecil Rhodes, a British minister living in South Africa supported this and said 'We are the first race in the world, and the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race'. 
  • During the 1800s and early 1900s black South Africans were forced out of the areas where gold and diamond mines were and they had to live in areas with poor quality land with little or no minerals
  • the white population lived completely separate to them and used different services and never interacted with the black popu9 lation, unless of course they had a black servent 
  • in 1948 the AFRIKANERS NATIONAL PARTY took control of South Africa and enforced Apartheid - suddenly many jobs were legally 'white only' and the marriage of white and non-white people was banned
  • The AFRICAN NATIONAL CONGRESS (ANC) are an opposition party that fought this political system and led protests against the regime. Nelson Mandela was a supporter and part of this movement) 
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Video clip

  • determined to live with family - illegally built shanty towns
  • black children had to be education in Africaans at school - not their natural tongue, so had less chance of getting a decent education and good grades
  • drugs were a common way to cope with the situations they were in - decreased life expectancy
  • dressed black man up as leader from Uganda to show white people could rule the country, and black people couldn't
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Hendrik Verwoed

  • Prime minister of South Africa from 1958 til 1966 when he was assassinated
  • was dutch and moved to South Africa with his family when he was very young
  • It was Verwoed who fully implemented and enforced partheid and is hailed by many white South Africans as a hero and one fo the greatest political leaders of all time
  • stabbed in th neck and chest during a parliamentary meeting
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Impacts of Apartheid

  • as part of Apartheid, the black population were stripped of their citizenship (removal of voting rights)
  • government segregated education - medical care (black doctor to patient ratio = 1:40,00. whites = 1:400) and other public services, and provided black peopl with services inferior to those of whites
  • black people were segregated into settlements called townships away from the white population
  • national development gap with an ethnic element
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Soweto uprising

  • protesting against education rrights
  • June 16th 1976
  • imprisonment on anti-aparthetid leaders and all opposition parties banned
  • unrest and uneasiness spread
  • if black people resisted they were kept in check by white controlled police acadamy
  • was said nearly 600 people were killed
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Nelson Mandela

  • anti-apartheid activist - ANC
  • 1960s: part of a group that planned to sabotage and bomb buildings - planned so nobody was hurt
  • 1980s: one of their attacks killed 19 people and injured over 200 - later admitted his group also violated human rights
  • jailed for 27 years from 1962 until 1990
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Main changes brought about by the ANC (after Apart

1.) Democracy - new ANC Government

  • the ANC brought in a number of reforms in an attempt to change the large disparities that were in palce following the influence of Apartheid
  • before 1944, South Africa's economy was heavily state run and subsidised
  • to attract overseas investment for the expansion of mining, the new ANC Government cut Government spending by privatising state assets and reducing the size of the Civil Service
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main changes brought about by the ANC (after Apart

2.) Economic changes

  • South Africa's economy has grown rapidly since 1994 - most economic growth has been capital intensive rather than labour intensive, which is a particular problem because a high proportion of the South African labour force is unskilled
  • companies have also had to cut back on their labour costs in order to remain competative in global markets
  • this has led to a high unemployment rate of 30% 

Capital-intensive: high cost industries, such  as mining where machines do most of the work and few jobs are created

Labour-intensive: low-cost industries such as construction and tourism, where people do most of the work and jobs are created 

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main changes brought about by the ANC (after Apart

3. Additional changes

  • exposure to the global market has affected food prices, which were previously subsidised, leading toan increasingly high inflation rate
  • the ANC government have also cut spending on health, which has worsened the impacts of HIV/AIDS
  • the  ANC has provided housing and water for the poor - between 1994 and 2003, 10 million people - nearly 25% of the population -gained access to clean drinking water
  • by 2008, the wholepopulation had access to clean water
  • women, in particular, no longer have to spend hours each day fetching water
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development gap getting wider/narrower in South Af


  • ANC cut spending on health-worsened impact of HIV/AIDS 
  • companies cut back on labour costs in order to remain competative in global market -led to high unemployment of 30%


  • ANC provided water and housing for the poor - 10 milionpeople (nearly 25% of population) gained access to clean drinking water between 1994-2003
  • by 2008, the whole population has access to clean drinking water
  • New housing estates improving quality of life for Black South Africans - new houses havewater and electricity supplies
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Consequences of development on megacities 

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Distribution of megacities

  • majority are on the coast (trade, easy access) as this is wher  there is most opportunity for development, and also where development happens very quickly 
  • they are in the countries with the highest populations along the tropic of cancer 
  • apart from Tokyo, New York, Mexico City and Sao Paulo, they are in NICs 
  • they are in the countries with large workforces, high birth rate and low death rate + hyper urbanisation
  • there are less in Africa because there is a high death rate
  • TNCs also mainly go to Asia because of the high, healthy workforces, explaining why there are so many in this area
  • there is a huge oil indusrry in Lagos and so many people work there for BP etc.
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why do they have fast growing economies + urbanis

  • higher paid jobs - more gov/TNC investment for infrastructure  etc 
  • variety of jobs 
  • opportunity for progression in jobs 
  • stable jobs - not seasonal
  • health care and education systems are better
  • bright light syndrome
  • quality of life
  • people move there to rejoin family and friends etc 
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Impacts of rapid urbanisation in megacities


  • can't keep up with the constant need for new housing
  • migrants cannot afford rent in cities and land regulations make it hard for poor people
  • migrants forced to live with friends causing OVERCROWDING or to build a makeshift home 
  • slums/temporary settlements grow on outskirts in areas that are polluted, near transport, marshy, former farmland
  • they live in fear of settlements being knocked down as they don't own the land 
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Impacts of rapid urbanisation in megacities


  • increase in transport, industry and people leadsto more air pollution - in Cairo the air quality is so poor that breathing the air  is the equivalent tto smoking 60/day
  • accidental spillages can cause huge damage e.g. Bhopal, India
  • leaking sewers and factories that leak chemicals etc cause this to leach into rivers. The Ganges is one of the worst rivers in the world and millions rely on this as a water source
  • industries and increasing numbers of people use water therefore over extraction is high - can lead to subsidence e.g. Bangkok 
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Impacts of rapid urbanisation in megacities


  • liquid  sewage and industrial waste both increase rapidly and contaminate land and water 
  • solid waste(paper, plastics...) all increase as affluence in city rises - allowed rag picking
  • rats and vermin increaseand disease spreads in slum areasthat arebuilt near landfill areas
  • 25% of all urban dwellers have no adequate sanitation, especially in slums 
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Impacts of rapid urbanisation in megacities


  • more people are driving cars as they get richer and cars get cheaper
  • congestion is very bad e.g. traffic queues in Mexico City areover 90km a day 
  • leads to increased air pollution, noise pollution, accidents, respiratory problems and contributes to climate change
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Impacts of rapid urbanisation in megacities


  • urban poverty is very complex as it is hard to know where the very poor are in cities
  • the poor are usually migrants and live in slums around the cities 
  • they suffer from unemployment or forced informal work, no housing or land rights, violent and unhealthy environments to live and work, no social protection and no support from authorities
  • they cannot accessmany services e.g. education and health care
  • the governments usually want to get rid of them not help them 
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Dhaka, Bangladesh

by 2015 Dhaka will have approx 21 million people with a density of 20,000 per km2

Rural areas lack job opportunities and the quality of life is very poor so there is rapid rural to urban migration

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Bangladesh employment challenge


  • strong growth in manufacturing, finance, telecommunications and services
  • Dhaka, home to 80% of garment industry's 2 million employees, also attracts migrant workers: hawkers, roadside vendors, refuse recyclers
  • unemployment high at 23%women excluded from work in transport, services,trade
  • 33% of city's labour force is self-employed, mostly men
  • child labour high in poorest households 

Solutions/recent developments:

  • two export processing zones,home to 413 industries, set up to encourage exports of garments, textiles etc
  • Bashundhara City: development economic area with high-tech industries, business corportations and one of the largest retail and leisure malls in Asia 
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Bangladesh urban poor challenge


  • residential land too expensive for urban poor to purchase: 28% of Dhaka's population classified as poor, 12% as extremely poor
  • only 5% live in permanent housing
  • rents rise as demand outstrips supply
  • many migrats end up in crowded slums in flood-risk areas 
  • about 4.2 million people live in slums; few slums have a clinic,only a quarter have a government school
  • one study found 58% of 6-7 year olds did not attend school
  • slums controlled by gangs of mastaans whodemandprotection money and sellillegal connections to water and other services 
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Bangladesh urban poor challenge

Solutions/recent developments:

  • government improvements to drains and sanitation
  • Ghore Fera (back to home programme) provides transportation, resettlement,income-generation loans, to help migrants return to village
  • Micro-credit schemes, but low coverage
  • healthcare development, e.g. local community health volunteers
  • dormitory accommodation for female garment workers
  • work with local communities to revuild trust in legal system and reduce violent crime 
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Bangladesh environmental quality challenge


  • air pollution due to unregulated expansion and ineffective regulations exceeds national standards on more than 100 days of the year
  • most poor people lack clean water and sanitation, andrely on tube wells
  • many live next to polluted water bodies, and depend on wood and dung for cooking - result is poor air quality, respiratory infections, diarrhoea
  • only 27% of population connected to public sewer system - pit latrines and septic tanks are used, but in densely populated areas these overflow into open drains
  • almost all human, industrial and agricultural waste enters surface water untreated
  • poor management of water resources in Dhaka estimated to cost US$670 million annually, including impacts on human health 
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Bangladesh environmental quality challenge

Solutions/recent developments:

  • promotion of cleaner gas-powered cooking stoves
  • ban on leaded  petrol
  • 2003 ban on two-stroke rickshaws cut particulate concentrations by a third;rickshaws  now run on compressed natural gas
  • government's air quality management project reducing truck and bys emissions, reducing sulphur in diesel
  • work to improve water quality and supply, sanitation,flood management
  • sewer and drainage system repairs to cost about US$100 million
  • public information to raise awareness of causes and impacts of poor air and water quality
  • stricter enforcement of waste disposal standards 
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Lagos, Nigeria

Lagos is biggest city in Nigeria and the 2nd largest  in Africa

It is currently estimated to be the seconds fastest growing city in Africa 

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Lagos, Nigeria

Lagos is biggest city in Nigeria and the 2nd largest  in Africa

It is currently estimated to be the seconds fastest growing city in Africa 

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Lagos, Nigeria

  • was the capital city of Nigeria until 1991 when the government decided to build Abuka as Lagos had got so overcrowded and squalid
  • it grew due to the oil boom that started in the 1970s. BP and Shell both operate in the country and there had been well publicised conflict between local tribes and thecompanies
  • due to the 1980s economic recession the ccountrygot into a lot of debt which wasfelt heavily by the capital
  • many movedto the city as they believed they would get a better life.Today, 300,000 people move there every year
  • approximately 16 million live there with 2/3 living in poverty (less than $1 a day)
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Lagos, Nigeria

  • the rich live on 'Lagos Island' which is connected to the mainland by 3 bridges
  • this island has the main business district with high rise offices etc. It had many of the shops and entertainment parks
  • the government buildoings and a prison are located here
  • there is expensive realestate on the island for rich Nigerians and foreign business people to buy and live away from the cramped dirty conditions of the rest of the city 
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Problems in Lagos

Social - 

  • huge in-migration from surrounding rural districts and smaller towns and cities - can't cope!
  • 7th fastest growing city in the world!
  • Nigeria's population density in100 persons per km2, while in Lagos it is 2400 per km2 - same areas over 20,000 per km2
  • with the influx of large numbers of people to a city lacking sanitary infrastructure, LAgos suffers frompoor sanitation and an inability to manage solid waste effectively
  • approximately 200 'slum' communities in Lagos have been labelled 'severely blighted' 
  • wage puzzle -  how are people staying alive when wages are so low and price of food is so high - 33cents/pound of rice. 
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Problems in Lagos

Environmental - 

  • so-called commercial hub of Africa - means Lagos is the end-point of three Trans-African Highway routes - caused very high vehicular traffic in the state with a resultant high discharge of carbon monoxide into the air
  • in addition to the poor regulation of the manufacturing industry with regardsto factory emissions into the environment - makes  Lagos one of Nigeria's most highly polluted cities
  • Nigeria regarded as the world's 43rd highest carbon emitter with an estimate annual carbon footprint of 100 million metric tonnes. The industry is responsible for theemission of more than150 billion cubic metres of environmentally damaging air emissions
  • Lagos inects about 3 tonnes of lead into the air daily
  • waste, sometimes toxic, is dumped by the industries along with household waste - makesits way into the soil and the ground water - leads to dangerous levels of iron and nitrate - have contaminated foood and water
  • food, soil, air and water contamination are major problems, making Lagos one of the world's dirtiest cities 
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Problems in Lagos

Economic - 

  • untamed economic growth
  • over 60% of all economic activities are carried out using motor vehicles
  • Shanty towns on the outskirts
  • Lagos has one of the  highest numbers of uncompleted buildings among major cities in the world
  • poorly services areas in terms of urban infrastructure e.g. roads, health centres, police stations, electricity, water supply and quality, drainage systems and waste management widespread (social and environmental too)
  • poverty has prevented car owners with fauly internal combustion engines from putting them right - environmental problems caused by economic problems! 
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India has a population of over 1 billion people

Despite its rapid economic growth, there are morepeople living in poverty here than anywherre else inthe world

Bangalore is now a shining example of India's success and has become a "World City"

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Causes of its successful growth - 

  • world centre for software development - employ about 1 million - continuous growth and high paid jobs 
  • 20 years ago TNCs set up there - telecommunications
  • entrepeneurs - headquarters of Indian companies located in Bangalore 
  • access to highly educated graduates - employees most important part of a business
  • English = main professional language (many very fluent, generally it is important)- attracting Western countries: investment - English colonised India - teach English in high end 
  • space research programmes
  • 1st city in India to get electricity
  • temperate weather - very high above sea level (15-35 degrees C) less monsoons even though near equator
  • jobs available require high skills - skiled professionals/educated people 
  • business process outsourcing -  customer services esp. in Bangalore - call centres/admin
  • 1,200 technological companies - a lot are Indian based (own jobs = more secure) - money is staying there - not reliant on TNCs
  • far away from the coast -  chose technology instead of trade 
  • 13,000 billionaires in Bangalore 
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