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  • Created by: JH1010
  • Created on: 18-10-15 10:16

Home Networks

Home Networks:

-> LAN

-> Netowrk Interface Card (NIC) needed or Wi-Fi dongles

Benefits of a LAN:

  • Sharing internet connection
  • sharing files
  • sharing peripherals


  • Gives internal IP address - knows where to send data
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Types of Network

Cable vs. Wireless


+ Very fast

+ Secure - users have to physically connect

+ No interference

- Room must have a socket if you want to connect

- Cables are needed -> they have to be wired to all rooms (where needed) 

- Expensive


+ Only need wireless router -> no cables

Cheaper -> only have to buy router

+ Access the network anywhere in range and can stay connected moving from room to room

- Slower

- Poor security -> unless security measures taken

- Connection can be interfered by objects in the way e.g. walls

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Network Security

Ways of securing wireless networks:

  • Chagning the default admin password
  • Encryption
  • MAC filtering -> specify which addresses can connect to the network
  • Stop broadcasting the SSID ( Service Set Identifier)
  • Turn off router when not in use
  • Reducing transmitter power
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Combining Technologies

Methods of combining technologies:

  • Wi-Fi
  • Bluetooth
  • USB 
  • Ethernet
  • HDMI
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Bandwidth and Latency


-> volume of data that can be transferred through a connection at once -> BPS

-> high bandwidth needed for good experience


-> The delay in data leaving a device and arriving at another -> Milliseconds

-> low latency needed for a good connection

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Wi-Fi and Mobile Broadband


+ Good range

+ Fast  

+ Widely available

- Hackers can set up fake hospots which put user's details at risk

- Cannot use if not in range of an access point

Mobile Broadband

+ Greater coverage than Wi-Fi

+ More secure than Wi-Fi as data is encrypted

- Have to pay for mobile broadband, including roaming charges when abroad

- Downloads limited 

- Lower bandwidth

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Peer to Peer networks

  • When digital devices communicate wirelessly with each other directly, without the need for a transmitter

Wi-Fi direct

  • Devices can connect directly using Wi-Fi as a peer-to peer network, without a wireless access point
  • Users can also use an acces point for normal Wi-Fi use


+ Devices can communicate automatically when within range

+ Can connect up to eight devices at a time

+ Low power so does not intefere with other devices

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Communication Protocols


-> rules for transmitting audio messages over the internet -> free voice calls



  • Simple Mails Transfer Protocol

-> transfers email from sender's email client to reciever's email client


  • Email is downloaded to reciever's computer and is deleted from the server

-> email can be read offline


  • Email is read on mail server and is kept on the server
  • Email can be read anywhere with internet connection
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Communication Protocols 2


  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol, used in WWW

-> Browser uses HTTP to ask the web server to send the files to show the webpage


  • Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure

-> Data is encrypted, can only be read by recipient

1. Browser checks site's certificates

2. Web server and browser determine encryption type

3. Send each other unique codes when encrypting the information being sent

4. Browser and web server start talking to each other using encryption

Digital Certificates:

  • Certify the identity of the website 
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Security Risks in a Network

Remote Access:

  • Firewall is used to prevent remote access. 

-> A firewall is software that permits or blocks connections

-> A firewall is not enough on its own as some malware works by shutting down the firewall

Viruses: program designed to cause other computer programs to malfunction or stop working

  • Install anti-virus software
  • Run regular scans of files on computer
  • Only download from trusted websites
  • Only open emails and attatchments from recognised senders

Intercepting Data:

  • Information can be intercepted and read by other users in the network
  • Information can be used to commit fraud

-> Encryption is used to keep data safe

Ilegal Access:

  • Data can be stolen or corrupted by unauthorised users on a network

Auhentication -> process of identitfying an individual -> allow access to correct persons

Username and Password -> strong password: numbers, upper and lower case letters, punctuation

Captcha test - ensure the user is human

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Physical Security Risks

Physical Access to Data:

  • Data is a risk from people physically accessing your computer and stealing it
  • Use the lock function to prevent this

Preventing Theft of Equipment:

  • Chains and locks to fix devices to desks
  • Locks on doors and windows
  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identidy) used in labels attaced to items. 

-> scanner is used to read chip and identify product -> sound alarm if being taken out of building or shop

Methods to physicall prevent unauthorised users:

  • Issue swipe cards
  • Install CCTV
  • Install burglar alarms and fit monitors in every room
  • Fit doors with security key pads and keep them locked
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