Procedure: a 'vision' tst; looking a lines to match the correct line. Done on Americans; there was confederates giving incorrected line length answers.
Findings: Within the trials where confederates were giving the wrong answers; 37% of the participants also gave the incorrect answers, Asch did the study again with no confederates, 1% gave incorrect answer to line length
Conclusions: Conformity occurs becuase of: disortion of perception, distortion of judgement, distortion of action
A02: Cultural validty; all Americans; Mcarthyism; people scared to be diffrent, lacks mundane realsim, weird task
Procedure: a 'colour test: 32 groups of 6 women: 4 participants, 2 confederates, had to state the colour shown. Confederates gave incorrect answers
Findings: 32% Gave same answers as confederates at least once. Conformity levels were 8.42%, however when confederats were inconsistent, levels dropped to 1.25%
Conclusions: Consistency is key in conformity, Mosovici's conversion theory; people conform to minority to avoid conflict
A02: Gender and sample bias, lacks mundane reaism (ecological validity)
Obedience to authority
Who: Milgram: electric shock test
Procedure: Voleenteers asked to do a teacher, learner exercise. 2 confederates, learner and experimenter. Participant was always the teacher and adminstered the shocks. Each time the learner got a question wrong, the participant had to administer a shock. The shocks increased in 15 stages upto 450 volts. The experimenter issued prods to continue the study; 'carry on, it is essential'
Findings: 65% went to 450 volts! All went to 300 volts
Conclusions: Suggest people are obediant to authority
A02: ethical issues: psychological harm, deception,
Milgrams explanation to why people obey
Gradual commitment: As participants already given low level shocks, issuing higher shocks is less difficult, 'foot-in-the-door' persuasion
Agentic Shift: The participant belives their actions are that of the experimenter, and they are just an agent carrying out these actions.
The role of buffers: Where a buffer blocks the consequences of a persons action, so they cannot see the results of their actions, e.g. the wall
Justifying obidence: Giving a reason, the results are good for a certain cause