Conflicts in the Middle East (1948-1991)


Pre-course Dates and Events

1917- Balfour Declaration: Britain promised that Palestine would become a Jewish state

1923- British Mandate to rule Palestine: Ultimately Palestine would gain independence

1931- Jewish population on Palestine had doubled: Due to the encouragement of the Jewish Agency

1937- Peel Commission recommended the partition of Palestine: Giving room for Arabs and Jews

1946- Attack on the King David Hotel: Heightened tensions between Arabs and Jews

1947- UN vote to partition Palestine (UN Resolution 181): More land was given to Jews (56%) and Jerusalem was to be an International Zone controlled by UN forces. 

1947- Civil War in Palestine begins: Arabs were unhappy with the UN partition agreements

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Post- War Events

May 14th 1948- Declaration of the new state of Israel: The USA was the first country to recognise them, doing so just 11 minutes after the announcement. 

May 15th 1948- The First Arab-Israel War: Israel is invaded by neighbouring Arab countries (Transjordan, Syria, Iraq, Egypt and Lebanon). 

1949- Final ceasefire is arranged: End of the First Arab- Israeli War

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Nasser and his Egypt

1952- Military coup on Egyptian Monarchy: King Faroukh abdicates

1953- Mossadeq coup in Iran

1954- Gamal Abdel Nasser becomes President of Egypt

1955- Israeli attack on Gaza // Nasser announces Czech arms deal // Baghdad Pact formed: promoted shared political, military and economic goals by Turkey, Iraq, Britain, Pakistan and Iran.

1956- Nationalisation of the Suez Canal: This lead to the Suez Crisis in the same year.

1957- Eisenhower Doctrine: Economic or military aid for Middle Eastern countries faced with aggression

1958- Formation of United Arab Republic (UAR): Egypt and Syria- Ended in 1961

1964- Cairo Conference: Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) set up

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More Wars

1967- May Crisis led to the third Arab- Israeli War // UN Resolution 242

5th-10th 1967- Six-day War: Israelis come out on top against Egypt, Syria and Jordan 

1969- Arafat becomes the leader of the PLO 

1969-1970- War of Attrition between Egypt and Israel

1970- DEATH OF NASSER // Sadat becomes President of Egypt

1973- Yom Kippur War (October War)

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Egyptian and Israeli Tensions Better

1977- Sadat flies to Israel

1978- Camp David Agreements 

1979- Treaty of Washington: Israel and Egypt // Saddam Hussein becomes President of Iraq // Islamic revolution in Iran

1980-88- Iran-Iraq War: Iraq come out on top 

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The End of the Course

1981- Assassination of Sadat

1982- Israeli invasion of Lebanon

1987- Start of the first Intifada

1990- Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

1991- First Gulf War

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