The Treaty of Verasailles
- France - Georges 'Tiger' Clemenceau
- Britain - David 'The Goat' Lloyd George
- USA - Woodrow Wilson
Terms of the conference:
- Land Restrictions
- Military Restrictions
- War Guilt Clause/ Clause 231
- League of Nations
Germany had to pay compensation for all the damage caused in the war
- A £6600 million sum was agreed in 1921 for Germany to pay to the victors over 42 years
- In the 1920s the amounts were modified
- In 1930 Germany stopped paying altogether
- Lost all colonies
- Forbidden to unite with Austria (Anschluss)
- Alsace-Lorraine returned to France
- Germany lost land to Poland and West Prussia (Polish corridor created and the Danzig port went to Poland)
- League of Nations took control of the Saar coalfields for 15 years
- Eupen-Malmedy went to Belgium
- Northern Schleswig went to Denmark
- Army limited to 100,000 men
- Conscription banned all soldiers must be volunteers
- No tanks, submarines or aircraft
- Navy could only have 6 battleships
- The Rhineland was demilitarised
War Guilt Clause
War Guilt Clause/Clause 231
Forced Germany to take full responsibility for everything that happened in the war
This gave the allies reason to punish the Germans
Signed by the Weimar Republic (November criminals)
The Weimar was Germany's makeshift government at the time and they became hated for causing such issues in Germany
There was no German representative at the conference as Germany had lost the war, therefore they had no say in the punishments they were given
League of Nation
League of Nations
Set up to keep international peace and it was one of Woodrow Wilson's 14 points
The league was made responsible for keeping the peace settlement
Countries were to talk and negotiate rather than secret treatys etc..
League of Nations detail
- Great Britain
Aims to promote peace:
- No invasions
- Restricted military at 200,000
- No alliances
- Fair trade between countries
Initially 42 members but by 1930s 59 members. Germany was not a member because it lost the war, Russia weren't a member because it was communist and USA wasn't a member because it was isolationist
League of Nations detail
S top agression
I mprove social conditions
E ncourage co-operation
If a country went against the league the league could:
- Moral: put pressure on
- Economic: refuse to trade
- Military: send in troops
The Mukden Incident
The Japanese takeover of Manchuria
1920s - world economy booming with Japan benefiting from this
1929 - Wall Street Crash: huge loss of jobs, banks in USA closed, loss of confidence
Countries enforced trade barriers to protect their own economy: USA introducing tarrifs against Japan
Japan can't afford to import food
Japanese production and employment fell by 30%
Causes of the Manchurian Incident
- Population increase
- No mineral resources
- High levels of famine
- Effects of the war
- Wall Street Crash
- Needed new markets for industries
- High unemployment
- Japanese politics took second place to the army
- Government members killed due to western relations with the army
Causes of the Manchurian Incident continued..
- Very patriotic
- Military had large influences over Japanese politics
- Army controlled education
- The army controlled the emporer
- The army controlled the South Manchurian Railway
Reasons to invade Manchuria
- Territorial power
- Resources like coal and iron
- China was weak because their 6 year old emporer had been overthrown
- Japan had an army in South Manchuria to protect Russian territory
- Japan owned South Manchurian railway
- Chinese government couldn't prevent it
Timeline of events
An explosion on september 1931 took place on the South Manchurian railway
Japan claimed it as sabotage and used this as a reason to invade
Chinese army claimed to be in their barracks
Japan again claimed sabotage
Chinese forces had to withdraw
February 1932, Japan set up a 'puppet' government controlled by them
Manchuria was renamed Manchkuo
Then they left the league
The LofN's response to the Manchurian incident
Told Japan to remove its troops from Manchuria
The Lytton Report:
The league set up a commision of inquiry under Lord Lytton
He was sent to gather information
The final report was given a year after the even
It concluded that Japan were in the wrong and Manchuria should be returned
Japan left the league in 1933 after ignoring it
The Abyssinian Crisis
January to October 1935
Italy - Mussolini
Abyssinia - Haile Selassil
Abyssinia had natural resources so would be good to extend the Italian empire
- It was one of the only countries in Africa to not already be controlled
- Close to Somalia and Eritrea (other Italian colonies)
France and Britain wanted Italy to side with them if Hitler became a threat
The leagues response to Abyssinia
The covenant of the league laid down the idea of sanctions
The league banned the sale of arms and other goods to Italy
It didn't ban oil as it feared USA wouldn't co-operate
It didn't ban coal as it feared the british mining industry would fail
The Suez canal was partially closed to Mussolini's ships
Split Abyssinia with Italy getting all the resources and the Abyssinians getting the rural mountainous areas.
There would be peace between Italy and the LofN
Abyssinia weren't consulted with the split
Hailie Salassil went to the league explain how it had done wrong
Road to War
Hitler's 4 Aims:
- Go against the TofV
- To unite all German speakers
- To expand territory (Lebensraum)
- To defeat communism
Hitler's Greater Germany would have a population of 85 million
To cater for this many people he would have to expand east towards Poland and Russia
Unite German speakers:
After TofV many Germans were living in foreign countries
Hitler's Aims continued..
Facism and communism were opposite
Germany vs. USSR
Communism was the reason Germany failed in the war
The Saar Plebiscite
Hitler introduces conscription
A vote was held to see whether the Saar should be returned to Germany
90% voted yes
7 March 1936 Hitler sent troops to march into the Rhineland
Hitler feared that Britain and france would do something as he was going against the TofV
Hitler became stronger as they didn't act
Britain saw it as Germany 'walking into his backyard'
The league had done nothing against Mussolini so Hitler carrie on
Hitler asked to sign a 25 year peace contract
Hitler's aim of going against the Tof V
Hitler and Mussolini supported facist Spanish General Franco in the civil war. Hitler used this war to try out his Luftwaffe and bombs. The civil war made Italy and Germany form an alliance, later followed by Japan.
Chamberlain became PM
He wanted to try and negotiate with Hitler to give him what he wanted. France agreed with appeasement after 1937
Chamberlain delt with Hitler to try and avoid a repeat of WW1
The British people also wanted to avoid the traumas of the war
Anschluss - Hitler goes beyond TofV
Hitler ordered Austrian Nazi party to start campaigning to join with Germany.
Austrian Chancellor tried to organise a referendum against this but Hitler sent troops to the border to stop this.
Schuschnigg (Austrian Chancellor) resigned and Hitler came in.
He imprisoned 80,000 opponents.
Austria's union with Germany was established on 14 March 1938
A refernedum took place and 99.75% agreed with Anschluss
Hiler'saim of Lebensraum, unite German speakers and go against TofV
The Sudetenland had 3 million Germans there due to the Tof V, so HItler wanted it.
After a lot of rioting and demands from the Czech Nazi party Chamberlain began to convince the Czechs to join with Hitler
22 September Chamberlain met with Hitler. He wanted the parts of Sudetenland with non-Germans were and threatened to go to war. Chamberlain returned to the UK and prepared for war.
War was avoided when Mussolini convinced Hitler to go to the Munich Conference on 29th September.
The Munich Conference
Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and Daladier (France)
It was agreed that the Sudetenland would become German. The Czechs were forced by Britain and France to agree to this.
October 1st German troops occupied the Sudetenland
Germany and GB signed an agreement saying they would always consult one another over any probelems and that they would never go to war against each other.
Churchill returned a hero, but had his critics (Churchill)
He had achieved what people wanted: peace in Europe
The occupation of Czechoslovakia - March 1939
Germany owned Sudetenland, Poland had gained land in October and Hungary in November
The new Czech president, Hacha, asked Hitler for help and in the end invited Hitler into Czechoslovakia. Hitler marched into Prague and the state of Czechoslovakia came to an end.
Britain and France didn't stop it because Hitler had been invited in.
Chamberlain then saw Hitler as an enemy as he had broken his promise.
Britain promised they would Help Poland if he tried to invade
Britain and the USSR talked about an alliance in the summer of 1939
Poland felt just as much under threat from the USSR as Germany so Britain delayed things.
Lebensraum meant that Hitler had to conquer all things east of Germany including the USSR so everyone was schocked at the pact.
The pact brought war closer. Both countries were going to invade Poland: Germany from the west and USSR from the east.
Hitler was sure GB wouldn't keep theiir promise to Poland as they hadn't followed through and help Czechoslovakia.
Stalin agreed to join with HItler as GB were delaying their alliance and they felt GB were trying to direct Hitler's attention to the east rather than the west
The invasion of Poland
1st September 1939 Germany invaded Poland
Chamberlain tried to get them to withdraw
This failed so Britain declared war on Germany, followed by France declaring war on the 3rd
The USSR invaded the east of Poland on 17th September
Within weeks Poland was defeated, and GB and France couldn'tdo anything to prevent it
HItler used peaceful ways to get what he wanted
Yalta Feb 1945
- Roosevelt, USA, anti-communist
- Churchill, GB, capitalist
- Stalin, USSR, communist
- Divide Germany and Berlin into 4: USSR, France, GB, USA
- Stalin was to have control over eastern Europe
- Former German colonies would have their own elections
- Create the United Nations
- Poland - Churchill didn't want USSR getting it as then it would be Soviet domination, Stalin wanted USSR border to move to Poland
Behind the scenes:
- Allied forces already disscusing punishments before the end of the war
- French section of Germany would add another anti-communist side
- Stalin 'teased' Churchill as he wanted to show how powerful he was - he wanted to show Churchill his failures
- Who would get power over Poland
- USSR going into Greece when GB and USA were trying to 'save' it from communism
- Stalin wanted a 'sphere of influence' so wanted Poland as a buffer zone
- Churchill didn't want to be harsh on Stalin as they had fought a lot of the war for GB
- USSR only communist country at this time
Potsdam July - August 1945
- Truman, USA, very anti-communist, policy of containment
- Attlee, GB, capitalist, homefront, negotiationism
- Stalin, USSR, communist
- Germany to pay reparations in the form of equipment and materials to mainly USSR
- The strength of Germany - Stalin wanted a weak Germany so it would resort to communism, USA and GB wanted to help rebuild its economy. The west sent industrial goods to the USSR but Stalin refused to send food and coal in return as promised
Major changes affecting the conference:
- Different political views
- USSR occupying most of east Europe (Baltic states, Finlad, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania and Hungary - buffer zone)
- 16 July 1945 USA successfuly tested an atomic bomb
- Suspicions between USA and USSR
- Truman thinks Stalin is just like Hitler
- Stalin knew about the A-bomb before Truman told him which suggests that he had spies in the USA
- Stalin distrusted Truman
The Truman Doctrine
1947 - communism threatening to take Greece and Turkey
March 1947 Truman gave a speech saying that the USA will help any country that feels threatened by communism
The Truman Doctrine was a $400 million aid that would be sent to Greece and Turkey to help the government beat communism.
America also installed ballistic missiles on the border between Turkey and USSR
This scared the Soviets as they had no nuclear weapons and USA did
The Marshall Plan
Aimed to accompany the Truman Doctrine and to help Europe recover from the war
A fund of $15 billion for Europe.
Stain realised this would make Europe dependent on USA
16 nations joined the plan including GB and West Germany
The help was provided in machinery and fertilisers so that the country could make things for trading ideally with the USA
Between 1948 and 1950 industrial production in Western Europe was up 25%
By 1952 most eastern countries had recovered economically and communist influence had decreased
Comecon - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
In retaliation Stalin introduced the Molotov plan which established Comecon
It was intended to offer Soviet aid to the satellite states
Stalin tried to bring communism back
However it was ineffective as the USSR didn't have effective resources
Stalin saw the Truman octrine and Marshall Plan as a way for USA to dominate Europe this fueled tensions and the Cold War
1947 communist leaders from all around the world were summoned to Warsaw where the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) was formed
It was designed to protect communist states from US agression
1948 Stalin ordered for Titi the communist Yugoslavian leader to be expelled from the group as he didn't follow his wishes, this shows Stalin's determination
USA saw Cominform as a threat to the west
The Berlin Blockade
Stalin blocked off 2 million people from Western help in the hope that this would push the allies out of Berlin and therefore Berlin relying completely on the USSR
If the allies tried to ram the blockades Stalin could see it as an act of agression
Truman wouldn't give in as he was worried West Germany would be nex
Truman wanted Berlin to be a symbol of freedom behind the 'iron curtain'
Stalin explained the blockades by claiming the roads were shut due to repairs andd the railway was closed due to gas and eletricity shortages, he used 'smoke screens'
Another reason Stalin set up the blokade was because the West had a new currency (Deutshmark) and a better economy. He didn't want it to get strong because then it wouldn't turn to communism.
It lasted 11 months
The Berlin Airlift
Saturday 26th June, the first planes landed in Templehof Airport in West Berlin. It was carrying a few tons of mail and food.
July 2nd the British codenamed it Operation Plainfare. It was the biggest air operation in history. Planes flew in night and day with exact landing times at 90 second intervals. Pilots were very skilled as the USSR were still using the air corridors.
By september, 4600 tons were being flown in daily, which still wasn't enough. Items had to be rationedand the USSR hoped for a cold winter that would stop loads of flights
The USSR tried to persuade west berliners to turn to east Berlin, less than 3% did.
April 16th-17th 1949 - 1398 flights delivered 13000 tons
Midnight May 12 1949 the blockade was lifted
The airlift gave Stalin two choices step down and look weak or shoot the planes down and causes a war. He stepped down.
4th April 1949
Union of Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, The NEtherlands, Norway, Portugal, UK and USA - collective security
West Germany joined on May 9th 1955
They signed the Treaty of Dunkirk. It was to support each other if they were ever under threat from Germany again.
Reasons for the treaty was the growing threat of the USSR. It was able to develop militarily all the countries involved in case of a war against Russia
The Warsaw Pact
Promted by NATO and West Germany joining it.
Union of all communist countries at the time: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and USSR on 14th May 1955 - collective security
It was the military complement to Comecon
It was controlled by the USSR
This evened tensions between USA and USSR
It became Russia's sphere of influence
America had a threat to NATO and its members