Animal learns passively to associate a neutral stimulus with an important one.
The response is automatic and reinforced by repitition.
For example; Pavlov conditioned dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell (because the dog expected food).
Animal learns actively to associate an action with a reward or punishment.
Behaviour requires a system of trial and error learning.
This occurs in humans when children are rewarded or punshed for specific behaviour.
For example; Skinner conditioned pigeons and rats to press the correct button in order to receive food.
Conditioning to train animals
Humans use a combination of classical and operant conditioning to train animals. Operant conditioning is preferred as the animal will learn easier as it receives a reward or punishment. Rewards work just as well as punishment; which causes stress.
Examples of training with operant conditioning;
Training guide dogs to stop at a roadside, and wait for a command.
Training police sniffer dogs to retrieve drugs.
Training animals to act in films.