Computer Science

How does defragmentation speed up your computer?

Disk defragmentation will speed up your pc by-

  • Make empty spaces in your hard disk closer together so that files are stored end to end
  • Files on the hard disk are moved
  • Files are moved to be stored together
  • Makes files occupy only a single space on your hard disk, instead of multiple which means it will have to be accessed more.
  • If the files are in one single space, the file has to be accessed less

How could something become fragmented?

  • Files have been split
  • New files bigger than deleted files
  • Files have been saved and then deleted when processed
  • Files are being accesed from more than 1 place, files are not in the same location
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Network Protocol

A rule set that is applied to a network that allows communication between multiple devices. Rules for data transmission

An example is Ip - Internet Protocol.

Network protocols are divided into layers - A layer is a group of protocols which have similiar functions. They seperate protocols into relevent groups, makes it easier to use. A division of network functionality. Using layers allows people to focus on one part of the network when developing for it. A layer can be edited and it wont affect other one..


Star Topologies-

  • Easy to add new device
  • Network management can be done centrally
  • If a device fails, the rest arent affected
  • Data will not collide as often
  • Signal only sent to computers that request data
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Fetch-Execture Cycle -

  • An instruction is fetched from memory
  • Cycle is repeated
  • Program counter incremented
  • Instructions decoded

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Secondary Storage

  • Non-volatile
  • Long term storage
  • Types are - Solid State, Magnetic, Optical
  • Characteristics are - Speed, Size, Cost, Durability, Reliability, Portabilility
  • Solid state - Fast, Large capacity, Expensive, Reliable, can be Portable
  • Magnetic - Fast, Large capacity, Cheap, not Portable
  • Optical - 
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Embedded Systems-

  • A computer system built into a device that has a specific function
  • Examples - Dishwasher, Washing machine, Toaster, Radio
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  • Firewall - no unauthorised acces
  • Encryption - anything trying to intercept the data is ignored
  • User access levels - each user has different permissions, users have restricted access
  • Anti-malware - deletes any type of viruses/spyware that could infect the system
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  • Built up of LANs
  • Expensive to set up
  • A Computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area 


  • Local arena 
  • Cheap to set up
  • Found in homes
  • Over small geographical area
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