Definition: Aerobic endurance is the ability of the CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM to work efficiently, supplying NUTRIENTS and OXYGEN to working MUSCLES during sustained physical activity.
Sporting Example: Marathon Runners need excellent aerobic endurance to ensure that they can continue to run over a long distance.
Training Methods: Continuous training, fartleck training, interval training and circuit training
Fitness tests: multi stage fitness test, forestry step test, vo2 max
Definition: Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscular system to work efficiently, where a muscle can continue contracting continuously against a light to moderate fixed resistance load.
Sporting Example: Rowers need excellent muscular endurance in their legs, back and arm muscles. They have to keep repeating the movement against the resistance of the water for the duration of their race.
Methods of training: Cirtcuit training and weight training
Fitness Tests: Sit up test, press-up test
Definition: Can be defined as having an adequate range of motion in all joints of the body; the ability to move a joint fluidly through its complete range of movement.
Sporting Example: A gymnast requires good flexibility to in order to allow them to move joints appropriately for their routine.
Methods of training: Static stretching, passive static stretching, ballistic stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
Fitness tests: Sit and Reach test
Definition: Distance travelled divided by the time taken to cover distance.
Sporting Example: A 100m sprinter needs good speed to be able to cover the 100m as quickly as possible.
Methods of Training: Hollow sprints, acceleration sprints
Fitness tests:35m sprint test
Definition: Strength is the maximum force that can be generated by a muscle or group of muscles.
Sporting Example: A weightlifter needs good strength to be able to apply maximum force to lift heavy weights.
Methods of Training: Circuit Training, Weight training
Fitness Tests: Hand-grip dynamometer
Definition; Agility is the ability of a sports performer to quickly and precisely move or change direction without losing balance or time.
Sporting Example: Rugby players need to have good agility in order to change direction quickly and avoid tackles from opposing players.
Methods of Training: anaerobic, ciruit training
Fitness Tests: Illinois Agility Test
Definition: The ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance)
Sporting example: A gymnast needs good balance to maintain control during performances.
Fitness Tests: beam walk, Y balance test, stork stand test
Definition: coordination is the ability to use parts of the body smoothly and accurately.
Sporting Example: Football players need excellent foot-eye coordination to keep the ball under control.
Fitness Tests: Wall-toss test, soda pop test, block transfer
Definition: The ability to combine speed and strength Power = Strength x Speed
Sporting Example: Boxers need good power in order to throw an effective jab.
Methods of Training: Circuit training, weight training
Fitness tests:Vertical Jump test
Definition: Reaction time is the time taken for a sports performer to respond to a stimulus and the initiation of this response
Sporting example: A hockey goalkeeper needs to make quick decisions in order to block shots.
Fitness Tests: Ruler-drop test
Definition: Body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in a human body.
Fitness Tests: Skinfold test, body mass index, bioelctrical impedance analysis