Components Of Fitness

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Aerobic Endurance

Definition: Aerobic endurance is the ability of the CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM  to work efficiently, supplying NUTRIENTS and OXYGEN to working MUSCLES during sustained physical activity.

Sporting Example: Marathon Runners need excellent aerobic endurance to ensure that they can continue to run over a long distance.

Training Methods: Continuous training, fartleck training, interval training and circuit training

Fitness tests: multi stage fitness test, forestry step test, vo2 max

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Muscular Endurance

Definition: Muscular endurance is the ability of the muscular system to work efficiently, where a muscle can continue contracting continuously against a light to moderate fixed resistance load.

Sporting Example: Rowers need excellent muscular endurance in their legs, back and arm muscles. They have to keep repeating the movement against the resistance of the water for the duration of their race.

Methods of training: Cirtcuit training and weight training

Fitness Tests: Sit up test, press-up test

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Flexibility

Definition: Can be defined as having an adequate range of motion in all joints of the body; the ability to move a joint fluidly through its complete range of movement.

Sporting Example: A gymnast requires good flexibility to in order to allow them to move joints appropriately for their routine.

Methods of training: Static stretching, passive static stretching, ballistic stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)

Fitness tests: Sit and Reach test

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Speed

Definition: Distance travelled divided by the time taken to cover distance.

Sporting Example: A 100m sprinter needs good speed to be able to cover the 100m as quickly as possible.

Methods of Training: Hollow sprints, acceleration sprints

Fitness tests:35m sprint test

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Strength

Definition: Strength is the maximum force that can be generated by a muscle or group of muscles.

Sporting Example: A weightlifter needs good strength to be able to apply maximum force to lift heavy weights.

Methods of Training: Circuit Training, Weight training

Fitness Tests: Hand-grip dynamometer

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Agility

Definition; Agility is the ability of a sports performer to quickly and precisely move or change direction without losing balance or time. 

Sporting Example: Rugby players need to have good agility in order to change direction quickly and avoid tackles from opposing players.

Methods of Training: anaerobic, ciruit training

Fitness Tests: Illinois Agility Test

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Balance

Definition: The ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance)

Sporting example: A gymnast needs good balance to maintain control during performances.

Fitness Tests: beam walk, Y balance test, stork stand test

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Coordination

Definition: coordination is the ability to use parts of the body smoothly and accurately.

Sporting Example: Football players need excellent foot-eye coordination to keep the ball under control.

Fitness Tests: Wall-toss test, soda pop test, block transfer

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Power

Definition: The ability to combine speed and strength      Power = Strength x Speed

Sporting Example: Boxers need good power in order to throw an effective jab.

Methods of Training: Circuit training, weight training

Fitness tests:Vertical Jump test

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Reaction Time

Definition: Reaction time is the time taken for a sports performer to respond to a stimulus and the initiation of this response

Sporting example: A hockey goalkeeper needs to make quick decisions in order to block shots.

Fitness Tests: Ruler-drop test

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Body Composition

Definition: Body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in a human body.

Fitness Tests: Skinfold test, body mass index, bioelctrical impedance analysis

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