Component 1 Section A


Williams (1983) = suggests that culture is a way of life - criticised for being too simplistic

Woodward (2000) = however states that culture is based on shared norms, values and practices

Bourdieu (1984) = there is a distinct difference between high culture and popular culture based on the power of those supporting it

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  • Youths spend, on average, 4 hours a day in front of the TV, 91% have a mobile phone and 80% have social media
  • Mulvey (1975) = "male gaze" - camera eyes up the woman and encourages the audience to access their bodies and attractiveness
  • Jock Young (2007) = "bullimic society" - constant hunger and desire to binge on consumer goods; Hypodermic model and Drip-Drip model

Peer groups; 

  • Tony Sewell (2000) = "cultural comfort zones" - associate with those who are similar to us (African-Carribean boys)


  • Not important = Attitudes survey = 69% didn't identify with a religion in 2006
  • Is important = Modood (2001) religion is central to Asian communities 
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  • Waddington (1999) = "canteen culture" - set of norms and values people are socialed to accept - resocialisation 
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  • Moodood (1997) = African-Carribeans living in the UK were most likely to mention skin colour as being part of their ethnicity, but suggests that British minority ethnic group identies are changing
  • Anderson (1983) = a nation is an "imagined community" and national identity is therefore "socially constructed" through symbols 
  • Stuart Hall (1999) = countries reactions to globalisation; cultural homogenisation, cultural hybridity and cultural resitance  
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Impact of ethnicity


  • Bhatti = studied Muslim families and found that there was an emphasis on family loyalty and maintaining traditional practices
  • Butler = studied a group of teenage Muslim girls and found that family was important in shaping their identity 


  • Mason (2005) = schools are becoming ethnocentric - viewing other cultures from a white perspective
  • Mocen Yaseen = Muslim schools are offering postive Muslim role models
  • Johal and Bains = "dual identities" = MEG's code switch - white mask at school, normal at home


  • Tony Sewell (2000) = peer pressure is influential in EI (African-Carribean youth = hyper-male)
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  • Connell (1995) = traditional set of gender roles - hegemonic masculinities and femininities; hegemonic masculinties, complicit Masculinties, marginalised masculintities and subordinate masculinities 
  • Stalham = by the age of 5, children have an idea of their gender through the process of certain codes; colour codes, toy codes, appearance codes, play codes, control codes
  • Sue Sharpe (liberal feminist) = 1970's girls had the idea that being a woman was defined by marriage and husbands. This changed in the 90's to career and education 
  • Billingham (1998) = studied how males and females are studied in the media - men are muscular, in suits and have mechanical roles. Women are however sexual objects, the "damsel in distress" and only care about shopping
  • There has since been a "genderquake" - Wilkinson (1994) = women more focussed on career and Connell (1995) = men are more emotional 
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  • Weeks (1991) = homosexuality is more complex as some have had same-sex encounters but don't consider themselves as homosexual 
  • Reiss (1961) = studied "rent boys" (male prostitutes) and found that although they had had sex with other men they didn't identify as gay 
  • Rich (1980) (radical feminist) = women's sexuality has been oppressed by the patriarchy and argues that women are not inherently straight but are forced to be 
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Social class

Upper class;

  • Mackintosh and Mooney (2004) = "social closure" - upper class lives are invisible to us

Middle class; 

  • The non-manual workers (lawyers, doctors, etc)

Working class; 

  • Hutton (1995) = because of the decline in traditional working class, the idenity of the traditional working class has become less important - deposables 


  • Charles Murray (1984) = the feckless, work-shy and immoral group - children of them are incorrectly socialised and don't follow the consensus of society
  • Paksulki and Walters (1996) = argue that because of the shift from production to consumption "class is dead"
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  • Postman (1982) = argues this term emerged when there was a need for children to be shielded from certain aspects of adulthood 


Margret Mead (1928) = some stresses of youth are not found in all cultures and so is culturally relative, meaning it is a socially constructed term 


  • Bradley (1996) = middles ages have a higher status than young adults because they have more power - negative term = "midlife crisis" 

Old age;

  • Corner (1999) = the elderly view themselves negatively as they are portrayed poorly in the media
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  • Disability Discimination Act passed in 1995, but is it useful? 33% increase in disability hate crimes across England and Wales in 2017/18
  • Shakespeare (1994) = the "medical model" and "social model" - the two approaches of being disabled 
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