Organisational Structure: The relationship between different people and functions in an organisation- both vertically, from shop-floor workers through supervisors and managers to directors, and horizontally between different functions and people at the same level.
Organisation Chart: A diagram showing the lines of authority and layers of hierarchy in an organisation.
Accountability and Responsibility
Accountability: The extent to which a named indivdual is held responsible for the success or failure of a particular policy, project or piece of work.
Centralisation and Decentralisation
Centralisation and Decentralisation: The degree to which authority is delegated within an organistion. A centralised structure has a greater degree of central control, while a decentralised structure involves a greater degree of delegated authority to the regions or to the subordinates.
Functional Organisational Structure: The traditional management structure consisting of a different department for each of the main functions of the business (e.g. marketing, production, finance and personnel).
Matrix Organisational Structure: A flexible organisational structure in which tasks are managed in a way that cuts across traditional department boundaries.
Delayering: The removal of one or more layers of hierarchy from the management structure of an organisation.
Portfolio Career: A career in which income is derived from a variety of sources- perhaps a number of jobs, or a job and a business.
Teleworking: People working from home and other locations and keeping in contact through information and communications technology (ICT)
Outsourcing: Using sources outside a business to undertake functions that used to be done internally by a section of the business itself. These sources include marketing consultants, call centres, and production and assembly plants. Outsourcing is linked to the issue of 'downsizing'.
Downsizing: Reducing the size of a firm to make it more responsive to market conditions- for example, by removing 'back room' activities such as office functions and call centres or the production and assembly of parts, which are then contracted out to other agencies.