Hume, Aristotle and Harry Frankfurt

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Aristotle (Habituation)

We are genetically influenced to be  a certain way.

If you are a coward you can practice to become brave but you will never be completly brave.

Determenism comes in

Actions internally- Free must bare full responsibility

Actions Internally- Not Free


Event Causation/ Transient - Snooker ball hitting another, no choice and cannot think

Agent Causation- Immanent- We have a choice when guven a choice (stimilus) Faxctors; mood, state of mind and sorroundings. We have the choice to react in certain ways unlike the snooker ball

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Harry Frankfurt ( 1st and 2nd order desires)

1 st Order desire is about the world (Money, Cigarretes and Cake) this are determined

2nd Order desire is I want not to want for example a cake. we can act on our second order desires which is determined by ; biological, physical , enviromental and cultural.

An argument against is that if our 1st order desires are deternined then the 2nd order desires must also be a determined and this would destroys Harry Frankfurt's compatibilism which is that determenism and free will are compatible

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Causation was key to his idea- he is an empiricist and thefefore examines the experience of cause and effect . Event A and B is the experience of "constant conjuction of events.


We all behave in a certain way but its not necessary. For example Hume's example of his freind , he says that he always behaves a certain way but he could suddnely have a frenzy and attack you. Also his example of house falling down , shows that behaviour is not necessary but contingent.

Our desires maybe determined but we are free because we can act on them without constriants, but if our desires are determined how can we really be free?

Desires have to be determined otherwise everything would be random- Indeterminsim

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