Companion Animal Welfare

Learning Objectives:
- List 5 freedoms and application
- Describe role of vets in small animal welfare
-Identify common ethical dilemmas
- Identify welfare stakeholders
- Legislation relating to small animal welfare
- Current ethical issues

  • Created by: Ro-Po 17
  • Created on: 18-07-18 10:49

The 5 Freedoms

1. Freedom from hunger and thirst
    Fresh water and sutitable diet

2. Freedom from discomfort
    Appropriate environment, shelter and resting

3. Freedom from pain injury and disease
    Prevention/diagnosis and treatment

4. Freedoms to express normal behaviour
    Space, facilities and companions

5. Freedom from fear and distress
    Conditions/ treatment avoid mental suffering

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Main Welfare Laws: small animals

Animal Welfare Act 2006

Protected IF:
- Commonly domesticated in British Islands
- Under control of man, on permanent or temporary basis
- Not living in a wild state

What does it actually say?
Section 9 = duty of care to take reasonable steps to meet welfare needs of their animals
For those responsible for animals, it means giving them the 5 freedoms

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Stakeholders in Welfare

Enforcement Bodies:
- Police
- RSPCA
- Local Authority Trading Standards

Advice and Education:
- Welfare charities
- Companion animal welfare Council
- Kennel Club

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Prevention of Harm

Mutilations Banned under 2006 Act:
- Tail docking
- Dew claw removal
- Ear cropping
- Declawing cats
- Devocalisation

Exceptions:
- Dew claw removal = anasthesia or before eyes open (5 days)
- Tail docking on approved breeds (Spaniel, terrier or hunt point retrieve breeds)
   Evidence required eg. identifiation, gun license etc.
   Vet NOT obligated to carry out proceedure

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Dangerous Dogs Act 1991

Banned breeds (x4)
- Pit Bull Terrier (and 'Type')
- Japanese Tosa
- Dogo Argentinia
- Fila Brasilerio

It is an offence to:
> Keep them unregistered
> Buy, sell, breed or exchange

If registered, must be:
- Muzzled and on lead in public
- Neutered
- Tattooed and microchipped
- Insured 3rd party injury

Vets not oblogated to PTS (Put To Sleep) even if police ask
Police can seize and kennel 

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Other Laws of Animal Welfare

Against law for dogs to be out of control ANYWHERE (Public, private, home)
Applies to ALL DOGS

Out of control
= Injures someone, worried it might injure someone, injures an Assistance Dog
Court can decide if:
= injures somones animal, owner of animal thinks they could be injured if they tried to stop your dog

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Identification

Control of Dogs Order 1992
- Any dog in public place must wear collar with owner name and address
- Certain dogs are exempt

Compulsary microchipping for ALL dogs as of April 2016

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More Information on 5 Freedoms

What is suffering?
'Absence of any binding legal definition or one adopted by veterinary profession is compound by the absence of any common approach to assessments of suffering'

Freedom from hunger?
Suitable diet, protected from suffering, pain, injury and disease

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Welfare in Animal Training

Freedom from hunger and thirst = don't restrict food/water before training
Freedom from dicomfort = ensure equiptment is comfortable, humane choices
Freedom from pain, injury and disease = If reluctant to do something, rule out chronic pain
Freedome to express normal behaviour = ensure meet behavioral needs before start training behaviours
Freedom from fear and distress = Never train using fear! 

Dominace Theory:
Linear hierarchy, priority access to resources, 'submessive' beahviour towards 'dominant' individual
Arguaments Against:
- Not description of individual animal
-  Not inherited trait
- Would dog-dog apply to dog-human?
Often confused with fearful behaviour

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Learning Theory

Classical conditioning = associations

Operant conditioning = reinforcement and punishment, positive and negative

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Cats

Stress:
- Indoor, multiple cats, neighbouring cats
Symptoms
- Spraying, self-mutilation, over-grooming, pica (urge to eat non-food items), aggression

Lack of preventative care:
- Flea allergies, dermatitis, FELV/FIV spread, unwanted litters

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Rabbit Welfare

Most cruelly treated UK pet: small hutch, no exercise, poor diet (should be 80-90% hay+grass), overgrown teeth, loneliness, flystrike and lack of vaccinations

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Birds and Exotics welfare

Aggression to carers -->> rehoming
They are fed inappropriate diets

Stress bars:
- Areas of poor development, creatinf flawed and weak segements, feathers vulnerable to breakage
Causes:
- Malnutrition, dehydration, disease, medication, emotional/environmental stress, parasites

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Problems in Pedigree Dogs

-Hip dysplasia
- Entropian
- Caesarian
- Brachyochephalic airways
- Mitral valve disease - 50% CKCS by 6yrs
- Syringomyelia - 30-70% CKCS develop clinical signs
- Hydrocephalus

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Breeding

Breeding and Sale of Dogs Act 1999
- Breed 5 litters or more a year must be licensed by local authority. Fewer must be licenced if breeding dogs for sale
- Licensed breeders must:
a) Not mate a ***** <12m/o
b) Not whelp more than 6 litter from a *****
c) Not whelp 2 litters in 12m period from same *****
d) Accurate records
e) Not sell puppy till at least 8w/o

Transportation:
Minimum of 15w/o instead of 10m

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Breeding

Breeding and Sale of Dogs Act 1999
- Breed 5 litters or more a year must be licensed by local authority. Fewer must be licenced if breeding dogs for sale
- Licensed breeders must:
a) Not mate a ***** <12m/o
b) Not whelp more than 6 litter from a *****
c) Not whelp 2 litters in 12m period from same *****
d) Accurate records
e) Not sell puppy till at least 8w/o

Transportation:
Minimum of 15w/o instead of 10m

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Role of Vets in Welfare

- Educate

- Advise training methods

- Refer to trianers

- Monitor for signs of illness related chronic stress

- A good death

- Welfare under veterinary treatment

- Report concerns to RCVS
  > Must not disclose info about client or clients animals to third party, unless client gives permission or welfare/public interest may be compromised. Also animal/child abuse

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Role of Vets in Welfare

- Educate

- Advise training methods

- Refer to trianers

- Monitor for signs of illness related chronic stress

- A good death

- Welfare under veterinary treatment

- Report concerns to RCVS
  > Must not disclose info about client or clients animals to third party, unless client gives permission or welfare/public interest may be compromised. Also animal/child abuse

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