Community Cohesion


Key words 1

community cohesion - a common vision and shared sense of belonging for all groups in society

discrimination - treating people less favourable becuase of their ethnicity/gender/colour/sexuality/age/class

ethnic minority - a member of an ethnic group (race) which is much smaller than the majority group

interfaith marriage - marriage where the husband and wife are from different religions

multi-ethnic society - many different races and cultures living together in one society

multi-faith society - many different religions living together in one society

prejudice - believing some people are inferior or superior without even knowing them

racial harmony - different races/colours living together happily

racism - the belief that some races are superior to others

1 of 11

Key words 2

religious freedom - the right to practise your religion and change your religion

religious pluralism - accepting all religions as having an equal reight to coexist

sexism - discriminating against people because of their gender (being male or female)

2 of 11

Changing attitudes to gender role in the UK

Why have things changed

  • Women did important jobs during the World Wars
  • The development of equal rights for women in other countries
  • Suffragette movement
  • Industries developed and more women workers were needed
  • The UN Declarationnof Human Rights and the development of the Feminist Movement
  • The Equal Pay Act and the Sex Discrimination Act
3 of 11

Womens Rights Timeline

  1. 1849 - Elizabeth Blackwell the first female Doctor
  2. 1870 - The Married Women's Property Act allows women to own their own property
  3. 1918 - Women over 30 are allowed to vote in Britain
  4. 1919 - Nancy Astor becomes the first female MP
  5. 1923 - The Matromonial Causes Act makes grounds for divorce the same for women an men, previously only men could file for divorce
  6. 1928 - Women aged 21 or over are allowed to vote
  7. 1967 - Abortion is made legal in the UK and the contraceptive pill becomes available through family planning clinics
  8. 1970 - Equal Pay Act means its illegal to pay women lower rates than men for the same work
  9. 1975 - The Sex Discrimination Act makes it illegal to discriminate against work, education and training
  10. 1979 - Margaret Thatcher becomes the first female Prime Minister
  11. 1989 - The Royal Air Force allowed women to pilot combat aircraft
  12. 1994 - **** in marriage is made a crime, previously **** was allowed if it was between husband and wife
4 of 11

Role of women in Christianity


  • Women are not allowed to be preists
  • Women are forbidden to be ordained
  • 'Wives submit to your husband... for the husband is head of the wife' Ephesians 5:22
  • 'Women must remain silent in church, they are not allowed to speak.' 1 Corinthians 14:34


  • Jesus had many female followers who he taught and helped them just as he taught and helped men
  • 'God created humanity in his own image, male and female he created them both.' Genesis 1:27
5 of 11

Gender similarities and differences in Islam

How they are treated in the same way in Islam

  • Men and women should be educated equally
  • Men and women should marry and have children
  • Men and women should work
  • Men and women are equally responsible for bringing up children

How they are treated differently in Islam

  • Men should protect women
  • Women can only inherit half of what a man can
  • Women do not have to go to the mosque for prayer
  • Women should look after the home and family
  • Men should provide for the family
6 of 11

Role of women in Islam - Traditional

Traditional Views

  • different roles
  • w: create halal home
  • w: bring children up as good Muslims
  • m: provide for family by working
  • m: worship Allah in mosque with sons
  • because Qur'an teaches men should support women - they are stronger
  • Qur'an teaches that women were created to bear children
  • Qur'an teaches women should only inherit half what a man inherits because men need more money to provide for the family
7 of 11

Role of women in Islam - Modern

Modern Views

  • completely equal roles
  • w: role as mother should be prioritised above thier career
  • some would accept women leaders
  • because Qur'an teaches men and women are equal in religion and education
  • Muhammad encouraged both men and women to worship in the mosque
  • There were women leaders during the early stage of Islam
  • Reference to Kahdijah and Aisha

Kahdijah and Aisha

  • Kahdijah was the first female Muslim convert
  • Aisha was key to maintaining Islam after Muhammad (her husband) died
  • Aisha memorised the Qur'an off by heart and understood it
8 of 11

The UK as a Multi-faith society


  • No one faith is in 'control'
  • Experience of other faiths can reduce conflict
  • People may be challenged to think about their faith
  • People can freely worship how they want

Differences. Views on:

  • Conversion
  • Bringing up children
  • Interfaith marriage
9 of 11

Multi-ethnic society

  • The UK is an island
  • Historically, the UK has been a place where many nationalitites and ethnicities have lived
  • The UK has better standards of living and jobs
  • Also people come to the UK to escape conflict and persecution


  • Prejudice
  • Discrimination
  • Racism
  • The way they are brought up
  • Lack of education
  • Reaction to people who are different to themselves
10 of 11

Government action to promote community cohesion

Race Relations Act 1976

  • Illegal to discriminate against someone because of thir race, colour, ethnicity or national origin

Racial Equality commission - to fight racism

Test for Immigrants

  • 3 questions about basic British life

Community Facilitation Programme and Neighbourhood Renewal Units

  • Develop skills for work 
  • Opportunities for young people
  • Provide health care
  • Make sure local services meet the needs of the particular community
11 of 11




Good keywords straight from the text book! Helped me when I lost mine and needed to revise them :)

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Community Cohesion resources »