Communications and Networking


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Data Transmission

  • Data Transmission: A movement of data from one place to another
  • Serial Data Transmission: Single Bits are sent one after another along a single wire
  • Parallel Data Transmission: Multiple bits are sent down several wires simultaneously
  • Baud Rate: The rate at which signals on a wire change
  • Bit Rate: The number of bits transferred per second
  • Bandwidth: The speed at which data is transferred measured in hertz.
  • Start and Stop bits: Signal the beginning and ending of a trasmission
  • Parity bit: Can be odd or even and is used for checking that a message is correct.
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  • Handshaking Protocol: When two computers engaging in data transmission signal to one another they are ready to receive and transmit.
  • Broadband System: When multiple channels are used for data transmission using several data streams.
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  • LAN: Local Area Network - Linked computers in a small geographical area
  • WAN: Wide Area Network - Linked computers over a large geographical area
  • Topology: The layout of a network e.g star, bus, ring
  • Standalone: A computer not connected to a network with its own peripherals
  • Internet: A interlinked network or networks made up of LAN's and WAN's
  • Peer to Peer Network: A network where all nodes are equal with no dedicated server
  • Client: A computer that receives services from the server
  • Server: A computer that provides services for the client
  • SaaS: Software as a Service
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  • WiFi: Wireless Fidelity, wireless networking trademarked as IEEE 802.11
  • Router: A device that receives data packets and passes them on to the correct destination
  • Gateway: A device which connects two networks insuring they use the correct protocol so data transmission can happen
  • Dynamic Web Page: A web page which content is generated when the web browser request is received
  • Inter-networking: When two LAN's are connected via a WAN to allow communication
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Two main types get used, Star and Bus.


  • Bus: Can be fast if good coaxial cables are used
  • Star: Fast as each workstation has its own cable

When Busy-

  • Bus: Transmission gets slower
  • Star: Constant speed maintained


  • Star: Expensive to set up due to cable costs
  • Bus: Cheap as theres not much cabling required


  • Bus: If the main cable is effected the whole network is
  • Star: If a cable is effected only the individual workstation will be effected.
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