Mock exam 1

Factors leading to commercialisation

  • Increased media presence and exposure
  • Greater ability for performers and spectators to travel
  • Greater presence of advertising
  • Sponsorship leads to more money avaliable to teams
  • Greater exposure of people to a wider variety of sports
  • Links between advertising and sponsorship- 'The golden triangle'
  • Rise of dedicated TV channels/radio stations for sport
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Sport England 2015 research

  • More people play sport at least once a week
  • More men play sport than women
  • More younger than older people participate in sport
  • More managerial/professional workers and intermediate social groups participate regularly than manual workers and unemployed people
  • The number of black and minority ethnic and white british adults playing sport is increasing
  • Slightly more people with disabilities are participating
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Key words

Spectatorship= The act of watching something without taking part; often related to spors spectators

Sponsorship= To support an event, activity or person related to sport, by providing money or goods.

Commodity= An article that can be raded. Sport can be sold to different media outlets or to companies that wish to associate their brand with a particular sport.

Golden Triangle= The interdependence and influences of the three factors of sport, media and sponsorship- that an aspect of one influences the other two and vice versa.

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Positive impacts of commercialisation on sport

  • Sports can promote themselves and might attract more participants which leads to more revenues
  • More money coming into sports means more can be spent on buildingnew or improving existing facilities
  • Allows certain sports to take place by offering sponsorship. E.g.Investec sponsoring womens hockey.
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Negative impacts of commercialisation on sport

  • Minority sports attract less sponsorship and are unable to develop their sports to the same extent as popular sports. This then impacts on olympic funding meaning sports become unsuccessful.
  • Female events and those for people with disabilities may miss out on a commercial investment as they are statistically less popular. This will attract less media exposure for the potential sponsor.
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Positive impacts of commercialisation on the indiv

  • Recieve kit and equipment from companies wishing to promote their product
  • Companies can fund accomodation and travel
  • Funding means performers can spend more time in training as they dont have to work
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Negative impacts of commercialisation on the indiv

  • Presssure to persfrom well and keep /secure sponsorship deals
  • Pressure can lead to deviant behaviour, such as performance enhancing drugs or violent behaviour
  • Performers expected to perform commercialisation activities as part of their sponsorship deals, such as attending events and wearing cerain products, which can create anxiety
  • Pressure to enter certain tournaments and play through injury to fulfil contracted obligations or earn full sponsorship
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Positive impacts of commercialisation on spectator

  • Added entertainment value at events that are well sponsored individually. E.g. Fireworks and dance routines.
  • Commercially organised technoloies, such as giant screens for video replays provides more information to spectators and invoving them in more events.
  • Greater variety of competitions avaliable to watch through the media so sport is more accessible to spectators. 
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Negative impacts of commercialisation on spectator

  • The sport may take second place to the entertainment
  • Many spectators don't like the amount of advertising they have to wath, especially if unrelatable and not interesting
  • Spectators often feel adverts disrupt the flow of games
  • There are often sponsors presentations before games which delay the start and can be boring
  • Youtube videos delayed by adverts
  • Spectators may not agree with the ethics of companies that sponsor their team or event. E.g. McDonalds and Coca Cola are unhealthy but sponsored the 2012 olympic games
  • Premier league football often sponsored by betting companies (Bet 365) or loan comapnies (Wonga). This could be unethical as it promotes gambling to children and some spectators suffer gambling addiction problems
  • Spectatos come into conflict with clubs when they rebrand or change aspects of their teams to become more commercially viable.
  • Spectators for some sports have to pay a lot of money to view their team
  • TV subscriptions and pay per view matches can be expensive
  • Companies profit paid for by the viewing public
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Changes in media coverage of sport since the 1980s

  • Includes many different types of media, such as growth of the internet
  • More oportunities to experience sport via the media or 24hr coverage
  • Increse in proportion of sport that is pay per view or subscription
  • Increased recent importance or role of social media when promoting sport
  • Increased media scrutiny or increase in regulations over journlism/reporting
  • Less sexist in gender representation in sport
  • Real time sport can be controled in visual media. E.g. Rewind live events
  • More minority sports and a wider range of sports represented in the media
  • More coverage of disablility sports or paralympics
  • Rise of sports stars status which is promoted in the media
  • Media has growing control over sports. E.g. Start times of sports events
  • Media coverage more global than 1980s
  • Sport coverage is very important to media. E.g. TV channels market themselves based int the sports they offer
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Internet changed the way people watch

  • More sports avaliable to stream live. e.g. BBC showing olympics.
  • Can watch on demand, catch up or anytime
  • Can wtach sport whilst travelling, outside home or on your phone so TV no longer needed
  • Can watch some live sports or highlights for free
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Positive aspects of media on sport

+ Informs and educates
+ Entertains
+ Advertises
+ Promotes nation building
+ Promotes minority sports
+ Positive role models created
+ Wealth and celeb status achieved
+ Media careers created
+ Generates funding for sport 
+ Increases popularity of sport
+ Made results fairer
+ Myths and stereotypes broken
+ Sky stream 24/7 matches
+ Controls aspects of sports

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Negative aspects of media on sport

- Overkill (too much sport on TV)
- Too much emphasis on winning
- Too much pressure on performers
- Negative role models created
- Irresponsible press coverage
- Media demands
- Pay per view
- Controls aspects of sports
- Minority sports get limited coverage
- Lights and cameras disrupt game

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Golden triangle- Media

8 The media includes various forms of communication (eg..)
9 Roles of media: inform, educate, entertain
10 TV is the most powerful aspect of media
+Buying and selling of TV or broadcasting rights
11 Increased participation
12 Money to sport from media
13 Role models created, copying good behaviour 
14 Media promotes or increases awareness of minority sport
15 Media has made sport more entertaining, popular and exciting 
16 Sport stars created and celebrity status possible
17 Impact of Sky or digital TV
18 Media influences some aspects of sport (+/-)
19 Too much sport on TV 
-Decreased participation 
20 Copying bad behaviour of negative role models
21 Irresponsible press coverage
-Fuelling negativity towards opponents
22 Media intrusion or media demands
-Bright lights etc may put performers off
23 Pay Per View means not everyone can see all events

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Golden triangle- Sponsorship

24 Money to sport from sponsorship 
+To increase brand awareness or company 
+Sponsoring sport gives 'cool' image to sport 
+Endorsements of products by performers
25 Powerful or dominant sports may have some control over sponsors
26 Sponsorship allows full-time training 
+Lack of sponsorship= limited progress
27 Sport sponsorship relatively inexpensive form of advertising
+Reference to impact of recession
28 Bad image for sport due to being linked to alcohol or fast food products
29 Pressure of sponsors demands

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Positives of Golden Triangle

  • Sports gaining media coverage will gain more sponsorship which can benefit more athletes
  • Sports gaining media coverage and sponsorship can increase funding to develop participation
  • Media pressures may lead to rule changes to make sport more entertaining. E.g. Hawk Eye reviews in tennis
  • Increased avaliability of sport for spectators due to increased media coverage
  • Sponsors generate more revenue from association with sports and performers and from increased media coverage
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Negatives of the Golden Triangle

  • Media can influence event timings which may be unsuitable for certain performances. E.g. Olympic timings designed for American audiences.
  • Inequality through sponsorship to benefit athletes in certain sports. E.g. Mens football
  • Lack of media interest in some sports reduces funding and sponsorship
  • Media funding increases pressure to win or to get sponsorship which can damge integrity of sport an increase deviant behaviour (violence and drug taking).
  • Participation imbalance: Athletes may disproportiontly choose sports with extensive media coverage and sponsorship over minority sports
  • Advertising increases due to sponsorship and media pressure detracting from the sporting event itself.
  • Life pressure increases on athletes and their families
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