Largest group (150,000) were Scots-Irish, descendants of Scottish Presbyterians. They were disconnected with the land system, bad harvest and the decline in the linen trade. Also religious and political discrimination drove them our of Ulster to Western frontier.
65,000 Germans came across. Many settled in Pa. Made up a third of the population
Smaller groups included the Dutch, Swedish and the Jews.
Few immigrants traveled on their own resources. They traveled in groups either; colonization schemes or temporary servitude (to meet the colonies low labour numbers). Usually pledged labour for four years. Between a half and a third of white laborers were indentured servants.
British authorities used colonies as a dumping ground. 30,000 felons, vagrants, paupers and political prisoners were transported in eighteenth century.
First black slaves in Va. 1619. By the eighteenth century numbers of black slaves was rising fast. 1763 there were 350,000 slaves (half of the population). Demand for slaves was high, more black immigrants than white. 90% of black slaves lived in the South. Less than 5% of the New England population, 40% in Va, Ma and Ga, 67% in South Carolina.
Indians (Native Americans).
British and European settlers didn't mix with them. Indians were divided, less advanced technology and European diseases meant they couldn't resist new settlers. But were still a powerful force in the Appalachian Mountains.
The result of Immigration.
By 1760 only half of population was of English stock. 15% were Welsh, Scottish or Scots-Irish. Africans 20%, Germans 8%. Europeans mostly blended together although Germans resisted this.