"Mutual Aid Teams"
- Consisted of 10 or fewer households
- Pooled equipment and labour (at harvest time)
- Ownership of land and produce remained private
- 40% of peasant households in "Mutual aid teams"
1 of 5
"Agricultural Producers Cooperatives" APC's
- Consisted of 30 - 50 households
- Members pooled labour, animals and equipment
- Privately owned - under government management
- Richer peasants given money to pool their resources (equipment and animals).
- Only reached south east China in 1954
2 of 5
Debate over speed of collectivisation
- Mao feared peasant resistance (like in Russia)
- 1953 he condemned "Rash Advance" to APC's
- Led to capitalism in countryside amongst rich peasants.
- Led to condemnation of "Rash Retreat"
- New effort to push though APC's
- Peasant resistance e.g. (slaughtering of animals)
- Floods = poor harvest + riots
- Mao halts APC's - 1/7 houses in them
- Mao returns to being dogmatic, does not compromise about APC's.
3 of 5
"Conference of Local Party Secretaries"
- July 1955
- Mao pushed foward dream of "socialist countryside"
By January 1956....
- 80% households in APC's
4 of 5
"Higher level APC's"
- Became more common
- No provate ownership
- No compensation
- 200 - 300 households
End of 1956....
- 88% of peasants in this
- Gave governement more control over rural China.
- Ideological victory
- Lost communists support of millions of peasants
- Reduced debts of poorest peasants - back to grass roots
5 of 5