Collapse of the Qing Dynasty

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Failures of reforms + leaders

  • Failure of BOXER REBELLION led to humilation for the government.
  • - led to introduction of modernising reforms
  • - ENDING TRADITIONAL CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS, STUDENTS SENT ABROAD FOR WESTERN EDUCATIONS AND THE MODERNISATION OF THE ARMY
  • - reforms had to be paid for with increased taxes
  • - led to Chinese students being 'infected; with revolutionary ideas abroad
  • Steps were taken to introduce CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT:
  • - election of PROVINCIAL ASSEMBLIES 1909 - only 0.42% could vote in elections
  • - NATIONAL ASSEMBLIES 1910                     - nine year 'prepatory period'
     
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Impact of foreign involvement

  • Resentment of foreign interference was long lasting (Opium Wars, Sino-Japanese wars)
  • Failure of 1900 BOXER REBELLION caused further resentment
  • Protests against Russian involvement in Mongolia
  • Boycott of American goods following new immigration laws, 1905
  • Foreign control of railways
  •  - helped lead to Wuhan Rising in 1911
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Growth of nationalist/revolutionary movements

  • Increased nationalist feeling during and after BOXER REBELLION
  • Protests against foreign interference
  • In 1905 Sun Yatsen formed his REVOLUTIONARY ALLIANCEin Tokyo
  •  - membership grew to 10,000 by 1911
  • Underground cells sprang up across Chinese cities
  • Seven failed uprisings took place 1906-1908
  • Imperial government out of touch with growing nationalist rhetoric
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Financial Crisis

  • Taxation increased after failed Boxer Rebellion
  • Qing reforms caused HUGE BUDGET DEFICIT; government practically bankrupt
  • TAXES on essientials such as tea and salt
  • Relied on foreign loans
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KEY TRIGGERS OF 1911 UPRISING

  • FLOODS OF 1910-11 - increased grain prices and famine
  • NATIONALISATION OF THE RAILWAYS
  • YUAN SHIKAI did a deak with with Wuhan rebels which led to the creation of a new republic
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